Art Movements
Art movements, schools, and styles

There are many ways to classify the history of art by time period, stylistic features, or geography. Currently The Athenaeum calls all such groupings "art movements". Pick a movement from the menu at left to see the artists associated with the movement.

Der Blaue Reiter
Dates: 1910-1914
German art group from Munich, which also comprised Russian immigrants.
 Artists
Albert BlochGerman, 1882-19616 artworks
David Davidovich BurliukRussian, 1882-196732 artworks
Heinrich CampendonkGerman, 1889-195722 artworks
Lyonel FeiningerAmerican, 1871-1956205 artworks
Natalia GoncharovaRussian, 1881-1962106 artworks
Alexei JawlenskyRussian, 1864-1941660 artworks
Wassily KandinskyRussian, 1866-1944236 artworks
Paul KleeSwiss, 1879-1940180 artworks
August MackeGerman, 1887-191492 artworks
Franz MarcGerman, 1880-1916339 artworks
Gabrielle MünterGerman, 1878-195590 artworks
Marianne von WerefkinRussian, 1860-193895 artworks
Peredvizhniki
Dates: 1863-1890
Russian artists who wanted to democratize art by travelling in the provinces - hence their name of "ambulants". They mostly painted common people at work and Russian landscapes.
 Artists
Abram Efimovich ArkhipovRussian, 1862-193056 artworks
Alexei BogoliubovRussian, 1824-18969 artworks
Nikolai Nikanorovich DubovskoyRussian, 1859-191863 artworks
Nikolai Alekseevich KasatkinRussian, 1859-19307 artworks
Arkhin Ivanovich KuindzhiRussian, 1842-19102 artworks
Ivan Nikolaevich KramskoiRussian, 1837-188732 artworks
Nikolai Dmitrievich KuznetsovRussian, 1850-19303 artworks
Isaac LevitanRussian, 1860-1900149 artworks
Konstantin Yegorovich MakovskyRussian, 1839-191558 artworks
Ivan PokhitonovRussian, 1850-192324 artworks
Vasily PolenovRussian, 1844-192723 artworks
Ilia Efimovich RepinRussian, 1844-1930254 artworks
Alexei Kondratyevich SavrasovRussian, 1830-189757 artworks
Ivan Ivanovich ShishkinRussian, 1832-1898165 artworks
Early Renaissance
Dates: 1420-1500
 Artists
Fra AngelicoItalian, 1387-1455143 artworks
Jacopo di AntonioItalian, 1427-14544 artworks
Alesso BaldovinettiItalian, 1425-14997 artworks
Gentile BelliniItalian, 1429-150728 artworks
Giovanni BelliniItalian, 1430-1516163 artworks
Jacopo BelliniItalian, 1400-147034 artworks
Pedro BerrugueteSpanish, 1450-150420 artworks
Boccaccio BoccaccinoItalian, 1467-15251 artwork
Benedetto BonfigliItalian, 1420-14963 artworks
Sandro BotticelliItalian, 1445-1510138 artworks
Francesco BotticiniItalian, 1446-14977 artworks
Francesco del CossaItalian, 1430-147716 artworks
Carlo CrivelliItalian, 1430-149528 artworks
Taddeo CrivelliItalian, 1425-14791 artwork
Antonello da MessinaItalian, 1430-147927 artworks
Andrea del CastagnoItalian, 1421-145713 artworks
Neri di BicciItalian, 1419-14919 artworks
Matteo di Giovanni di BartoloItalian, 1430-149511 artworks
DonatelloItalian, 1386-146627 artworks
Vincenzo FoppaItalian, 1430-151516 artworks
Piero della FrancescaItalian, 1422-149211 artworks
Domenico GhirlandaioItalian, 1449-149493 artworks
Matteo di GiovanniItalian, 1430-149522 artworks
Benozzo GozzoliItalian, 1421-14978 artworks
Fra Filippo LippiItalian, 1406-146968 artworks
Zanobi MachiavelliItalian, 1418-14793 artworks
Andrea MantegnaItalian, 1431-1506104 artworks
MasaccioItalian, 1401-142821 artworks
Ambrosi MelozzoItalian, 1438-149412 artworks
Domenico di MichelinoItalian, 1417-14912 artworks
Giovanni di PaoloItalian, 1398-148237 artworks
PisanelloItalian, 1395-145517 artworks
Antonio del PollaiuoloItalian, 1433-149810 artworks
Piero PollaiuoloItalian, 1441-149611 artworks
Ercole de' RobertiItalian, 1451-149618 artworks
Antoniazzo RomanoItalian, 1430-151012 artworks
Cosimo RosselliItalian, 1439-150723 artworks
Jacopo da SellaioItalian, 1442-149317 artworks
Cosmè TuraItalian, 1430-149526 artworks
Paolo UccelloItalian, 1397-147511 artworks
Domenico VenezianoItalian, 1410-146116 artworks
Andrea del VerrocchioItalian, 1435-148829 artworks
Alvise VivariniItalian, 1442-15038 artworks
Antonio VivariniItalian, 1410-148016 artworks
Bartolommeo VivariniItalian, 1432-149917 artworks
Marco ZoppoItalian, 1433-14789 artworks
Barbizon school
Dates: 1830-1880
French realist school. Its painters met in the village of Barbizon, near Paris. They mostly represented peasants at work in the fields.
 Artists
Edward Mitchell BannisterAmerican, 1828-190136 artworks
Pierre BilletFrench, 1837-19221 artwork
Jules-Adolphe BretonFrench, 1827-190676 artworks
Jean-Baptiste-Camille CorotFrench, 1796-1875712 artworks
Charles François DaubignyFrench, 1817-1878242 artworks
Narcisse Diaz de la PenaFrench, 1807-1876111 artworks
Jules DupréFrench, 1811-188989 artworks
George FullerAmerican, 1822-18849 artworks
William Morris HuntAmerican, 1824-1879130 artworks
Jean-François MilletFrench, 1814-1875125 artworks
Théodore RousseauFrench, 1812-1867107 artworks
Paul-Désiré TrouillebertFrench, 1829-190033 artworks
Constant TroyonFrench, 1810-1865135 artworks
Cubism
Dates: 1907-1925
 Artists
Alexandr ArchipenkoUkrainian, 1887-19648 artworks
Georges BraqueFrench, 1882-1963327 artworks
Robert DelaunayFrench, 1885-194197 artworks
Roger de la FresnayeFrench, 1885-192581 artworks
Albert GleizesFrench, 1881-195374 artworks
Juan GrisSpanish, 1887-1927487 artworks
Henri LaurensFrench, 1885-19547 artworks
Henri Le FauconnierFrench, 1881-19464 artworks
Fernand LégerFrench, 1881-1955430 artworks
André LhoteFrench, 1885-1962296 artworks
Louis MarcoussisPolish, 1883-194175 artworks
Jean MetzingerFrench, 1883-1956135 artworks
Pablo PicassoSpanish, 1881-1973237 artworks
Alfred RethHungarian, 1884-196615 artworks
Les Nabis
Dates: 1888-1905
Group of French painters active in the 1890s, who focused on painting as a decorative art, exploring pattern and ornament.
 Artists
Pierre BonnardFrench, 1867-1947693 artworks
Maurice DenisFrench, 1870-1943296 artworks
Henri Gabriel IbelsFrench, 1867-19362 artworks
Georges LacombeFrench, 1868-191614 artworks
Aristide MaillolFrench, 1861-194475 artworks
Paul RansonFrench, 1864-190980 artworks
József Rippl-RónaiHungarian, 1861-1930209 artworks
Ker Xavier RousselFrench, 1867-1944104 artworks
Paul SérusierFrench, 1864-1927150 artworks
Felix VallottonSwiss, 1865-1925249 artworks
Jan VerkadeDutch, 1868-19462 artworks
Edouard VuillardFrench, 1868-1940657 artworks
Hudson River School
Dates: 1825-1870
American art movement from 1825 to 1870, typified by landscape paintings of the Hudson River Valley in New York state with a Romantic aesthetic.
 Artists
Albert BierstadtAmerican, 1830-1902402 artworks
Alfred Thompson BricherAmerican, 1837-1908243 artworks
John W. CasilearAmerican, 1811-189326 artworks
Frederic Edwin ChurchAmerican, 1826-1900209 artworks
Thomas ColeEnglish, 1801-1848132 artworks
Samuel ColmanAmerican, 1832-192054 artworks
Jasper Francis CropseyAmerican, 1823-1900226 artworks
Thomas DoughtyAmerican, 1793-185653 artworks
Asher Brown DurandAmerican, 1796-1886134 artworks
Sanford Robinson GiffordAmerican, 1823-1880182 artworks
James McDougal HartAmerican, 1828-190141 artworks
William M. HartAmerican, 1823-189436 artworks
William Stanley HaseltineAmerican, 1835-190087 artworks
Robert Havell Jr.American, 1793-187811 artworks
Herman HerzogAmerican, 1832-1932109 artworks
Thomas HillEnglish, 1829-1908117 artworks
George InnessAmerican, 1825-1894286 artworks
David JohnsonAmerican, 1827-190880 artworks
John Frederick KensettAmerican, 1816-1872171 artworks
Homer Dodge MartinAmerican, 1836-189741 artworks
Jervis McEnteeAmerican, 1828-189153 artworks
William Rickarby MillerAmerican, 1818-189316 artworks
Thomas MoranAmerican, 1837-1926329 artworks
Francis A. SilvaAmerican, 1835-188674 artworks
James Augustus SuydamAmerican, 1819-18657 artworks
Robert Walter WeirAmerican, 1803-188921 artworks
Thomas Worthington WhittredgeAmerican, 1820-1910148 artworks
Die Brücke
Dates: 1905-1912
First German expressionist group. Its members were influenced by primitive arts and painted with strong brush strokes and unmixed colours, like the Fauvists - their French counterparts.
 Artists
Erich HeckelGerman, 1883-197054 artworks
Ernst Ludwig KirchnerGerman, 1880-1938239 artworks
Otto MüellerGerman, 1874-193027 artworks
Emil NoldeGerman, 1867-19561049 artworks
Hermann Max PechsteinGerman, 1881-1955173 artworks
Karl Schmidt-RottluffGerman, 1884-197639 artworks
Symbolism
Dates: 1870-1910
 Artists
Włodzimierz BłockiPolish, 1885-19201 artwork
Arnold BöcklinSwiss, 1827-190132 artworks
August BrömseCzech, 1873-19252 artworks
Mikalojus CiurlionisLithuanian, 1875-191117 artworks
Jean DelvilleBelgian, 1867-195311 artworks
John McKirdy DuncanScottish, 1866-194566 artworks
Léon FrédéricGerman, 1856-19403 artworks
Kahlil GibranLebanese, 1883-19314 artworks
Lajos GulácsyHungarian, 1882-19324 artworks
Karel HlaváčekCzech, 1874-18986 artworks
Ferdinand HodlerSwiss, 1853-1918121 artworks
Emil HolárekCzech, 1867-19192 artworks
Fernand KhnopffBelgian, 1858-192137 artworks
Gustav KlimtAustrian, 1862-1918157 artworks
Josef MandlCzech, 1874-19333 artworks
Gustave MoreauFrench, 1826-1898122 artworks
Edvard MunchNorwegian, 1863-19441669 artworks
Gaetano PreviatiItalian, 1852-19205 artworks
Pierre Puvis de ChavannesFrench, 1824-189883 artworks
Odilon RedonFrench, 1840-1916568 artworks
Félicien RopsBelgian, 1833-18983 artworks
Carlos SchwabeGerman, 1866-192629 artworks
Franz von StuckGerman, 1863-192859 artworks
Jan TooropDutch, 1858-192815 artworks
Elihu VedderAmerican, 1836-192371 artworks
Ashcan school
Dates: 1908-1920
American art movement of the early 20th century, known for portraying daily life of the urban lower classes, especially in New York City.
 Artists
Gifford BealAmerican, 1879-195632 artworks
George Wesley BellowsAmerican, 1882-1925251 artworks
William James GlackensAmerican, 1870-1938284 artworks
Robert HenriAmerican, 1865-1925347 artworks
George Benjamin LuksAmerican, 1867-1933115 artworks
Jerome MyersAmerican, 1867-194013 artworks
Everett ShinnAmerican, 1876-195392 artworks
John SloanAmerican, 1871-1951146 artworks
Pop Art
Dates: 1955-1975
Anglo-Saxon movement which used advertising and comics imageries or daily life objects to turn them into artworks.
 Artists
Andy WarholCzech, 1928-198715 artworks
Veduta
Dates: 1720-1770
Italian artists who specialized in painting panoramas of Rome, Venice and landscapes with ruins, which they sold to English gentlemen as souvenirs of their Grand Tour.
 Artists
Paolo AnesiItalian, 1697-177328 artworks
Bernardo BellottoItalian, 1721-178075 artworks
CanalettoItalian, 1697-1768158 artworks
Luca CarlevarisItalian, 1665-17319 artworks
Giovanni Battista CimaroliItalian, 1687-17716 artworks
Jacopo FabrisItalian, 1689-17611 artwork
Francesco GuardiItalian, 1712-179367 artworks
Antonio JoliItalian, 1700-177737 artworks
Hendrik Frans van LintBelgian, 1684-176317 artworks
Andrea LocatelliItalian, 1693-17411 artwork
Michele Giovanni MarieschiItalian, 1710-174313 artworks
William Marlow1740-181360 artworks
Giovanni Paolo PaniniItalian, 1691-1765134 artworks
Marco RicciItalian, 1676-173016 artworks
Hubert RobertFrench, 1733-180889 artworks
Howard TangyeAustralian36 artworks
French School 18th Century - UnknownFrench, 1700-18003 artworks
Claude-Joseph VernetFrench, 1714-1789139 artworks
Pierre VolaireFrench, 1729-179912 artworks
Northern Renaissance
Dates: 1500-1590
Art movement which occurred mainly in Germany and the Low Countries when the Renaissance style spread outside Italy and mixed with Late Gothic and Early Netherlandish styles.
 Artists
Pieter AertsenDutch, 1508-157533 artworks
Albrecht AltdorferGerman, 1480-153832 artworks
Hans Baldung GrienGerman, 1485-154594 artworks
Ambrosius BensonBelgian, 1484-155052 artworks
John Bettes the ElderEnglish, 1531-15703 artworks
Joachim BeuckelaerBelgian, 1534-157435 artworks
Jörg Breu the ElderGerman, 1475-15374 artworks
Pieter Bruegel the ElderBelgian, 1525-1569188 artworks
Bartholomäeus Bruyn the ElderGerman, 1493-155523 artworks
Joos van CleveDutch, 1485-154053 artworks
Lucas Cranach the ElderGerman, 1472-1553142 artworks
Adriaen van CronenburgDutch, 1525-16043 artworks
Herri Met de BlesBelgian, 1510-15602 artworks
Albrecht DürerGerman, 1471-1528437 artworks
Hans EworthDutch, 1520-157813 artworks
Frans FlorisBelgian, 1516-157011 artworks
Jan Gossaert (Called Mabuse)Belgian, 1478-153225 artworks
Matthias GrunewaldGerman, 1470-152818 artworks
Hans Holbein the YoungerGerman, 1497-1543153 artworks
Adriaen IsenbrandtBelgian, 1485-155116 artworks
Hans Maler zu SchwazGerman, 1480-152910 artworks
Jan MandijnDutch, 1500-15603 artworks
Cornelis MassysBelgian, 1510-15563 artworks
Master of 1518Belgian, 1490-15305 artworks
Jan MostaertDutch, 1472-155516 artworks
Bernard van OrleyBelgian, 1487-15413 artworks
Pieter PourbusBelgian, 1523-15841 artwork
Jacob SeiseneggerAustrian, 1505-15674 artworks
Isaac Claesz van SwanenburgDutch, 1537-16245 artworks
Jan Sanders Van HemessenBelgian, 1500-156612 artworks
Dada
Dates: 1916-1924
 Artists
Jean ArpSwiss, 1886-196620 artworks
Jean CrottiFrench, 1878-19581 artwork
Marcel DuchampFrench, 1887-19683 artworks
Max ErnstGerman, 1891-197624 artworks
George GroszGerman, 1883-1959106 artworks
Early Netherlandish
Dates: 1400-1530
 Artists
Hieronymus BoschDutch, 1450-151656 artworks
Aert van den BosscheBelgian, 1490-15101 artwork
Dierec BoutsDutch, 1415-147525 artworks
Robert CampinDutch, 1378-144434 artworks
Petrus ChristusDutch, 1410-147526 artworks
Jacques DaretBelgian, 1404-14703 artworks
Gheeraert (Gerard) DavidBelgian, 1460-152327 artworks
Masolino di CristoforoItalian, 1383-144715 artworks
Bartelemy d'EyckBelgian, 1444-14701 artwork
Hubert Van EyckBelgian, 1385-14261 artwork
Jan van EyckBelgian, 1393-144128 artworks
Hugo van der GoesBelgian, 1440-148220 artworks
Jean HeyDutch, 1475-150516 artworks
Thomas de KeyserDutch, 1596-16674 artworks
Neroccio de' LandiItalian, 1447-150011 artworks
Josse LieferinxeBelgian, 1493-15087 artworks
Jan MassysBelgian, 1510-157514 artworks
Master of the Embroidered FoliageBelgian, 1480-15107 artworks
Master of the Virgo inter VirginesDutch, 1460-150015 artworks
Hans MemlingDutch, 1435-149479 artworks
Quentin MetsysBelgian, 1466-153051 artworks
Jacob Cornelisz. van OostsanenDutch, 1475-153313 artworks
Geerten tot Sint JansDutch, 1465-149513 artworks
Maarten van HeemskerckDutch, 1498-15741 artwork
Rogier van der WeydenBelgian, 1399-146433 artworks
Bauhaus
Dates: 1919-1932
A school of architecture, design and art founded in Germany in 1919. Bauhaus is characterized by severely economic, geometric design and by respect for materials.
 Artists
Lyonel FeiningerAmerican, 1871-1956205 artworks
Wassily KandinskyRussian, 1866-1944236 artworks
Paul KleeSwiss, 1879-1940180 artworks
El LissitzkyRussian, 1890-19413 artworks
Oskar SchlemmerGerman, 1888-19436 artworks
Fauvism
Dates: 1904-1912
French artists who painted with wild brush work and colours, hence their name. Can be considered as the French branch of early Expressionism.
 Artists
Alice BaillySwiss, 1872-1938122 artworks
Georges BraqueFrench, 1882-1963327 artworks
Charles CamoinFrench, 1879-1965151 artworks
André DerainFrench, 1880-1954287 artworks
Raoul DufyFrench, 1877-1953868 artworks
Henri-Jacques EvenepoelBelgian, 1872-18998 artworks
Emile-Othon FrieszFrench, 1879-1949279 artworks
Henri ManguinFrench, 1874-1949159 artworks
Albert MarquetFrench, 1875-1947388 artworks
Henri MatisseFrench, 1869-1954751 artworks
Jean MetzingerFrench, 1883-1956135 artworks
Jean PuyFrench, 1876-196018 artworks
Georges RouaultFrench, 1871-1958373 artworks
Louis ValtatFrench, 1869-1952509 artworks
Kees Van DongenDutch, 1877-1968451 artworks
Maurice de VlaminckFrench, 1876-1958798 artworks
High Renaissance
Dates: 1500-1530
Golden age of Italian painting, with great masters such as Da Vinci, Michelangelo or Raphael, who set the rules of painting for centuries.
 Artists
Fra BartolommeoItalian, 1472-151719 artworks
Giovanni Antonio BoltraffioItalian, 1467-151622 artworks
Michelangelo BuonarrotiItalian, 1475-1564168 artworks
Giovanni CarianiItalian, 1485-154721 artworks
Vincenzo CatenaItalian, 1470-153127 artworks
CorreggioItalian, 1489-153459 artworks
Lucas Cranach the ElderGerman, 1472-1553142 artworks
Battista DossiItalian, 1490-15484 artworks
GiorgioneItalian, 1478-151031 artworks
Hans Holbein the YoungerGerman, 1497-1543153 artworks
Leonardo da VinciItalian, 1452-151943 artworks
Lorenzo LottoItalian, 1480-1557106 artworks
Bernardino LuiniItalian, 1480-153231 artworks
Moretto da BresciaItalian, 1498-155431 artworks
Sebastiano del PiomboItalian, 1485-154724 artworks
RaphaelItalian, 1483-1520195 artworks
Gerolamo RomaninoItalian, 1485-156620 artworks
Andrea del SartoItalian, 1486-153017 artworks
Giovanni Girolamo SavoldoItalian, 1480-15489 artworks
Luca SignorelliItalian, 1445-152326 artworks
Andrea SolarioItalian, 1465-152421 artworks
TitianItalian, 1488-1576236 artworks
Girolamo da Travis the YoungerItalian, 1497-15444 artworks
Jacopo Palma il VecchioItalian, 1480-152817 artworks
Bartolomeo VenetoItalian, 1480-154636 artworks
Caravaggisti
Dates: 1590-1640
First stage of Baroque, with many artists all over Europe who closely followed Caravaggio's style of strong Chiaroscuro.
 Artists
Dirck van BaburenDutch, 1595-16249 artworks
Giovanni BaglioneItalian, 1566-164316 artworks
Jan van BijlertDutch, 1597-167126 artworks
Valentin de BoulogneFrench, 1591-163223 artworks
Giovanni Battista CaraccioloItalian, 1578-16357 artworks
CaravaggioItalian, 1571-161070 artworks
Bartolomeo CavarozziItalian, 1590-16259 artworks
Georges de la TourFrench, 1593-165233 artworks
Cecco del CaravaggioItalian, 1610-16258 artworks
Domenico FettiItalian, 1589-162365 artworks
Artemisia GentileschiItalian, 1593-165233 artworks
Orazio GentileschiItalian, 1563-163930 artworks
Gerard van HonthorstDutch, 1592-165692 artworks
Bartolomeo ManfrediItalian, 1582-162214 artworks
Mattia PretiItalian, 1613-169930 artworks
Nicolas RégnierBelgian, 1591-166723 artworks
Jusepe de RiberaSpanish, 1591-165297 artworks
Carlo SaraceniItalian, 1579-162013 artworks
Gerard SeghersBelgian, 1591-165116 artworks
Leonello SpadaItalian, 1576-16223 artworks
Massimo StanzioneItalian, 1586-16569 artworks
Matthias StomDutch, 1600-165023 artworks
Hendrick TerbrugghenDutch, 1588-162949 artworks
Nicolas TournierFrench, 1590-163912 artworks
Claude VignonFrench, 1593-167024 artworks
Simon VouetFrench, 1590-164967 artworks
Francisco de ZurbaránSpanish, 1598-166491 artworks
Abstraction-Création
Dates: 1931-1936
Abstract art group based in Paris. Its members wanted to revive abstract art which had declined in the late 1920's, challenged by Surrealism.
 Artists
Willi BaumeisterGerman, 1889-195514 artworks
Auguste HerbinFrench, 1882-1960165 artworks
Alfred RethHungarian, 1884-196615 artworks
Kurt SchwittersGerman, 1887-194843 artworks
Suprematism
Dates: 1913-1927
First abstract group, founded around Malevitch. Its members painted monochrome geometric forms, usually in black, white, or primary colours.
 Artists
Ilya ChashnikRussian, 1902-19297 artworks
Ivan KliunRussian, 1873-19434 artworks
Kasimir MalevichRussian, 1878-1935109 artworks
Liubov PopovaRussian, 1889-192475 artworks
Olga RozanovaRussian, 1886-19183 artworks
Nikolai SuetinRussian, 1897-19542 artworks
Expressionism
Dates: 1905-1940

European art movement which consisted on many small and short-living groups. Each one painted with unconventional colours and distorted perspectives in order to "express" personal emotions.

 Artists
Alexandr ArchipenkoUkrainian, 1887-19648 artworks
Alice BaillySwiss, 1872-1938122 artworks
Giacomo BallaItalian, 1871-195848 artworks
Max BeckmannGerman, 1884-1950372 artworks
Albert BlochGerman, 1882-19616 artworks
Umberto BoccioniItalian, 1882-191629 artworks
Georges BraqueFrench, 1882-1963327 artworks
David Davidovich BurliukRussian, 1882-196732 artworks
Charles CamoinFrench, 1879-1965151 artworks
Heinrich CampendonkGerman, 1889-195722 artworks
Benedetta Cappa MarinettiItalian, 1897-197710 artworks
Carlo CarràItalian, 1881-196621 artworks
Marc ChagallFrench, 1887-198588 artworks
Lovis CorinthGerman, 1858-1925280 artworks
Tullio CraliItalian, 1910-20006 artworks
Robert DelaunayFrench, 1885-194197 artworks
Fortunato DeperoItalian, 1892-19601 artwork
André DerainFrench, 1880-1954287 artworks
Otto DixGerman, 1891-196958 artworks
Raoul DufyFrench, 1877-1953868 artworks
Henri-Jacques EvenepoelBelgian, 1872-18998 artworks
Lyonel FeiningerAmerican, 1871-1956205 artworks
Roger de la FresnayeFrench, 1885-192581 artworks
Emile-Othon FrieszFrench, 1879-1949279 artworks
Albert GleizesFrench, 1881-195374 artworks
Natalia GoncharovaRussian, 1881-1962106 artworks
Juan GrisSpanish, 1887-1927487 artworks
Erich HeckelGerman, 1883-197054 artworks
Alexei JawlenskyRussian, 1864-1941660 artworks
Wassily KandinskyRussian, 1866-1944236 artworks
Ernst Ludwig KirchnerGerman, 1880-1938239 artworks
Paul KleeSwiss, 1879-1940180 artworks
Mikhail Fedorovich LarionovRussian, 1881-196451 artworks
Marie LaurencinFrench, 1883-1956275 artworks
Henri LaurensFrench, 1885-19547 artworks
Henri Le FauconnierFrench, 1881-19464 artworks
Fernand LégerFrench, 1881-1955430 artworks
Wyndham Lewis1882-19571 artwork
André LhoteFrench, 1885-1962296 artworks
August MackeGerman, 1887-191492 artworks
Henri ManguinFrench, 1874-1949159 artworks
Franz MarcGerman, 1880-1916339 artworks
Louis MarcoussisPolish, 1883-194175 artworks
Albert MarquetFrench, 1875-1947388 artworks
Henri MatisseFrench, 1869-1954751 artworks
Jean MetzingerFrench, 1883-1956135 artworks
Paula Modersohn-BeckerGerman, 1876-1907143 artworks
Amedeo ModiglianiItalian, 1884-1920307 artworks
Otto MüellerGerman, 1874-193027 artworks
Edvard MunchNorwegian, 1863-19441669 artworks
Gabrielle MünterGerman, 1878-195590 artworks
Emil NoldeGerman, 1867-19561049 artworks
Hermann Max PechsteinGerman, 1881-1955173 artworks
Constant PermekeBelgian, 1886-19527 artworks
Pablo PicassoSpanish, 1881-1973237 artworks
Liubov PopovaRussian, 1889-192475 artworks
Jean PuyFrench, 1876-196018 artworks
Alfred RethHungarian, 1884-196615 artworks
Georges RouaultFrench, 1871-1958373 artworks
Luigi RussoloItalian, 1883-19474 artworks
Egon SchieleAustrian, 1890-1918335 artworks
Karl Schmidt-RottluffGerman, 1884-197639 artworks
Gino SeveriniItalian, 1883-196633 artworks
Mario SironiItalian, 1885-19618 artworks
Ardengo SofficiItalian, 1879-19641 artwork
Chaim SoutineFrench, 1894-1943526 artworks
Howard TangyeAustralian36 artworks
Maurice de VlaminckFrench, 1876-1958798 artworks
Johann Heinrich VogelerGerman, 1872-194246 artworks
Edward Wadsworth1889-194953 artworks
Max WeberPolish, 1881-196146 artworks
Albert WeisgerberGerman, 1878-19153 artworks
Marianne von WerefkinRussian, 1860-193895 artworks
Dutch Golden Age
Dates: 1600-1680

Flourishing period in the Dutch Republic, with a global production of several millions of still lifes, portraits, genre scenes and landscapes - genres hitherto neglected in favour of religious painting.

 Artists
Willem van AelstDutch, 1626-168343 artworks
Pieter Jansz. van AschDutch, 1603-167813 artworks
Jan AsselijnDutch, 1610-165249 artworks
Bartholomeus AssteynDutch, 1607-17704 artworks
Balthasar van der AstDutch, 1593-165736 artworks
Barent AvercampDutch, 1612-167917 artworks
Hendrick AvercampDutch, 1585-163438 artworks
Jacob Adriaensz BackerDutch, 1608-165132 artworks
David BaillyDutch, 1584-16676 artworks
Ludolf BakhuizenDutch, 1630-170880 artworks
Bartholomeus van BassenDutch, 1590-165213 artworks
Cornelis BeeltDutch, 1640-17022 artworks
Jan Abrahamsz BeerstratenDutch, 1622-166613 artworks
Cornelis Pietersz BegaDutch, 1620-166417 artworks
Nicolaes Pietersz BerchemDutch, 1620-1683125 artworks
Gerrit Adriaenszoon BerckheydeDutch, 1638-169822 artworks
Job Adriaenszoon BerckheydeDutch, 1630-16932 artworks
Christoffel van den BergheDutch, 1590-16456 artworks
Abraham van BeyerenDutch, 1620-169015 artworks
Cornelis BisschopDutch, 1630-167411 artworks
Ferdinand BolDutch, 1616-168052 artworks
Hans BollongierDutch, 1600-16734 artworks
Gerard ter Borch the YoungerDutch, 1617-168162 artworks
Abraham BosschaertDutch, 1612-16434 artworks
Ambrosius Bosschaert the ElderDutch, 1573-162118 artworks
Ambrosius Bosschaert the YoungerDutch, 1609-16455 artworks
Johannes BosschaertDutch, 1606-16295 artworks
Jan BothDutch, 1618-165236 artworks
Esaias BoursseDutch, 1631-16725 artworks
Leonaert Bramer1596-167425 artworks
Salomon de BrayDutch, 1597-16649 artworks
Bartholomeus BreenberghDutch, 1598-165723 artworks
Quiringh van BrekelenkamDutch, 1622-166942 artworks
Elias van den BroeckBelgian, 1649-170812 artworks
Johannes van BronckhorstDutch, 1648-172712 artworks
Abraham van CalraetDutch, 1642-172231 artworks
Jan van de CappelleDutch, 1626-167929 artworks
Cornelis Janssens van CeulenDutch, 1593-1661122 artworks
Anthony Claesz. the YoungerDutch, 1616-16523 artworks
Pieter ClaeszDutch, 1597-166037 artworks
Pieter CoddeDutch, 1599-167834 artworks
Edwart CollierDutch, 1640-171021 artworks
Adam de ColoneDutch, 1572-16511 artwork
Adam ColoniaDutch, 1634-16855 artworks
Adriaen CoorteDutch, 1665-170711 artworks
Laurens CraenDutch, 1620-16703 artworks
Pieter van der CroosDutch, 1609-16773 artworks
Abraham van CuylenborchDutch, 1610-16584 artworks
Aelbert CuypDutch, 1620-169173 artworks
Benjamin Gerritsz. CuypDutch, 1612-16528 artworks
Cornelis Gerritsz. DeckerDutch, 1623-167811 artworks
Dirck van DelenDutch, 1604-167124 artworks
Anthonie de DelormeDutch, 1610-16738 artworks
Olivier van DeurenDutch, 1666-17142 artworks
Abraham DiepraemDutch, 1622-16704 artworks
Floris van DijckDutch, 1575-16516 artworks
Gerrit DouDutch, 1613-167569 artworks
Willem DrostDutch, 1630-16781 artwork
Hendrick Jacobsz. DubbelsDutch, 1621-170711 artworks
Jacob DuckDutch, 1600-166717 artworks
Karel DujardinDutch, 1626-167852 artworks
Willem Cornelisz DuysterDutch, 1599-163520 artworks
Gerbrand van den EeckhoutDutch, 1621-167441 artworks
Allaert van EverdingenDutch, 1621-167515 artworks
Caesar van EverdingenDutch, 1617-167825 artworks
Carel FabritiusDutch, 1622-165419 artworks
Govaert FlinckDutch, 1615-166075 artworks
Jean-Baptiste FornenburghDutch, 1585-16498 artworks
Wybrand GeestDutch, 1592-16616 artworks
Aert de GelderDutch, 1645-172764 artworks
Jan Josefz van GoyenDutch, 1596-165654 artworks
Joris van der HaagenDutch, 1615-16697 artworks
Johannes van HaensbergenDutch, 1642-17059 artworks
Dirck HalsDutch, 1591-165636 artworks
Frans HalsDutch, 1582-1666155 artworks
Jan HalsDutch, 1620-16543 artworks
Gerrit Willemsz HedaDutch, 1620-17024 artworks
Willem Claesz HedaDutch, 1594-167032 artworks
Cornelis de HeemDutch, 1631-16956 artworks
Jan Davidszoon de HeemDutch, 1606-168470 artworks
Bartolomeus van der HelstDutch, 1613-167031 artworks
Lodewijk van der HelstDutch, 1642-16823 artworks
Herman HenstenburghDutch, 1667-17269 artworks
Jan van der HeydenDutch, 1637-171268 artworks
Meindert HobbemaDutch, 1638-170952 artworks
Melchior de HondecoetterDutch, 1636-169533 artworks
Pieter de HoochDutch, 1629-168468 artworks
Samuel Van HoogstratenDutch, 1627-167810 artworks
Gerard HouckgeestDutch, 1600-16613 artworks
Jan van HuchtenburghDutch, 1647-17337 artworks
Jan de BrayDutch, 1627-16972 artworks
Ludolf de JonghDutch, 1616-16793 artworks
Willem KalfDutch, 1610-169343 artworks
Cornelis KickDutch, 1634-16816 artworks
Simon KickDutch, 1603-16528 artworks
Philips de KoninckDutch, 1619-168852 artworks
Salomon KoninckDutch, 1609-165629 artworks
Philip van KouwenberghDutch, 1671-17293 artworks
Pieter van LaerDutch, 1599-16421 artwork
Judith LeysterDutch, 1609-166024 artworks
Jan LievensDutch, 1607-167474 artworks
Johannes LingelbachDutch, 1622-167434 artworks
Isaack LuttichuysDutch, 1616-16732 artworks
Nicolaes MaesDutch, 1634-169363 artworks
Cornelis de ManDutch, 1621-170612 artworks
Jacob MarrelGerman, 1614-16813 artworks
Gabriël MetsuDutch, 1629-1667127 artworks
Michiel Jansz. van MiereveltDutch, 1567-164110 artworks
Frans van Mieris the ElderDutch, 1635-168155 artworks
Abraham MignonGerman, 1640-167920 artworks
Daniël MijtensDutch, 1590-164849 artworks
Jan MijtensDutch, 1614-167030 artworks
Jan Miense MolenaerDutch, 1611-166878 artworks
Paulus MoreelseDutch, 1571-163856 artworks
Jan MortelDutch, 1652-17195 artworks
Frederick de MoucheronDutch, 1633-168611 artworks
Michiel van MusscherDutch, 1645-17056 artworks
Aert van der NeerDutch, 1603-167741 artworks
Caspar NetscherDutch, 1639-168458 artworks
Jacob OchterveltDutch, 1634-168231 artworks
Jan OlisDutch, 1610-167615 artworks
Maria van OosterwijckDutch, 1630-16936 artworks
Adriaen van OstadeDutch, 1610-1685142 artworks
Isaac van OstadeDutch, 1621-164934 artworks
Anthonie PalamedeszDutch, 1601-16736 artworks
Palamedes Palamedesz IDutch, 1607-16381 artwork
Nicolaes Eliaszoon PickenoyDutch, 1588-165013 artworks
Carel van der PluymDutch, 1625-16722 artworks
Egbert van der PoelDutch, 1621-166420 artworks
Cornelius van PoelenburghDutch, 1594-166763 artworks
Frans PostDutch, 1612-168012 artworks
Hendrik Gerritsz. PotDutch, 1585-165719 artworks
Paulus PotterDutch, 1625-165442 artworks
Adam PynackerDutch, 1620-167333 artworks
Pieter QuastDutch, 1605-164710 artworks
Jan Anthonisz van RavesteynDutch, 1570-165711 artworks
George Ogilvy ReidEnglish, 1851-192823 artworks
Rembrandt van RijnDutch, 1606-1669717 artworks
Pieter de RingDutch, 1615-16607 artworks
Roelant RoghmanDutch, 1627-16928 artworks
Gillis RomboutsDutch, 1630-16721 artwork
Jan Albertsz RotiusDutch, 1624-16668 artworks
Jacob van RuisdaelDutch, 1628-168294 artworks
Salomon van RuysdaelDutch, 1600-167044 artworks
Salomonsz. van RuysdaelDutch, 1629-16816 artworks
Eise Aetes RuytenbachDutch, 1656-16921 artwork
Peter SaenredamDutch, 1597-166515 artworks
Ethel Sands1873-196220 artworks
Roelant SaveryDutch, 1576-163926 artworks
Godfried SchalckenDutch, 1643-170677 artworks
Abraham van der SchoorDutch, 1600-16601 artwork
Floris van SchootenDutch, 1590-165518 artworks
Otto van SchrieckDutch, 1613-167814 artworks
Hendrik Martensz. SorghDutch, 1609-167030 artworks
Pieter Claesz. SoutmanDutch, 1590-165712 artworks
Jan SteenDutch, 1625-1679116 artworks
Abraham Jansz. StorckDutch, 1644-170837 artworks
Ernst StuvenGerman, 1657-17125 artworks
Wallerant VaillantDutch, 1623-16776 artworks
Werner Jacobsz. van den ValckertDutch, 1585-16355 artworks
Anthonie van BorssumDutch, 1630-16772 artworks
Jacob Van LooDutch, 1614-167078 artworks
Adriaen van de VeldeDutch, 1636-167224 artworks
Esaias van der Velde IDutch, 1587-163013 artworks
Willem van der Velde the ElderDutch, 1611-16937 artworks
Willem van de Velde the YoungerDutch, 1633-1707168 artworks
Jacob van VelsenDutch, 1597-16564 artworks
Adriaen van de VenneDutch, 1580-166217 artworks
Pieter Cornelisz.VerbeeckDutch, 1610-16544 artworks
Johannes VermeerDutch, 1632-167537 artworks
Jan Vermeer van UtrechtDutch, 1630-16961 artwork
Simon de VliegerDutch, 1601-165344 artworks
Hendrick Cornelisz van VlietDutch, 1611-167530 artworks
Daniel VosmaerDutch, 1622-16696 artworks
Nicolaes de VreeDutch, 1645-17022 artworks
Jacobus VrelDutch, 1617-168116 artworks
Abraham de VriesDutch, 1590-16558 artworks
Roelof van VriesDutch, 1631-168117 artworks
Jacob van WalscapelleDutch, 1644-17278 artworks
Jan WeenixDutch, 1640-171934 artworks
Adriaen van der WerffDutch, 1659-172220 artworks
Jacob Willemsz. de WetDutch, 1610-167112 artworks
Jan WijnantsDutch, 1632-168449 artworks
Adam WillaertsDutch, 1577-16444 artworks
Matthias WithoosDutch, 1627-17035 artworks
Emanuel de WitteDutch, 1617-169244 artworks
Philips WouwermanDutch, 1619-1668122 artworks
Pieter WouwermanDutch, 1623-16828 artworks
Baroque
Dates: 1590-1720

Baroque is actually a general category which includes several distinct schools of the 17th century. As for the Renaissance, the movement started in Italy, but the Spanish and Dutch Netherlands took the lead between 1620-1680, then France from 1650 onwards.

 Artists
Alexander AdriaenssenBelgian, 1587-16619 artworks
Benito Manuel AgueroSpanish, 1624-16684 artworks
Francesco AlbaniItalian, 1578-1660159 artworks
José AntolinezSpanish, 1635-167522 artworks
Juan de ArellanoSpanish, 1614-167629 artworks
Gioacchino AsseretoItalian, 1600-164926 artworks
Dirck van BaburenDutch, 1595-16249 artworks
Giovanni BaglioneItalian, 1566-164316 artworks
Antonio BalestraItalian, 1666-174021 artworks
Paolo Antonio BarbieriItalian, 1603-16494 artworks
Francisco BarreraSpanish, 1595-16587 artworks
Evaristo BaschenisItalian, 1617-167713 artworks
Lubin BauginFrench, 1612-166311 artworks
Osias BeertBelgian, 1580-162315 artworks
Giovanni BeinaschiItalian, 1636-16882 artworks
Antonio de BellisItalian, 1616-16563 artworks
Gian Lorenzo BerniniItalian, 1598-168092 artworks
Jan van BijlertDutch, 1597-167126 artworks
Giovanni BilivertiItalian, 1585-16443 artworks
Jan BoeckhorstBelgian, 1605-16684 artworks
Pieter BoelBelgian, 1626-167412 artworks
Pieter van BoucleBelgian, 1610-16734 artworks
Bon BoullogneFrench, 1649-171718 artworks
Louis Boullogne the ElderFrench, 1609-16744 artworks
Madeleine BoullogneFrench, 1646-17104 artworks
Louis de Boullogne the YoungerFrench, 1654-173346 artworks
Valentin de BoulogneFrench, 1591-163223 artworks
Sébastien BourdonFrench, 1616-16711 artwork
Jan Brueghel the YoungerBelgian, 1601-167813 artworks
Juan Martín CabezaleroSpanish, 1633-16736 artworks
Guido CagnacciItalian, 1601-16632 artworks
Francesco CairoItalian, 1607-166713 artworks
Pedro de CamprobinSpanish, 1605-167414 artworks
Alonso CanoSpanish, 1601-166730 artworks
Giovanni Battista CaraccioloItalian, 1578-16357 artworks
CaravaggioItalian, 1571-161070 artworks
Annibale CarracciItalian, 1560-160961 artworks
Juan Carreño de MirandaSpanish, 1614-168531 artworks
Valerio CastelloItalian, 1624-165913 artworks
Giovanni CastiglioneItalian, 1609-166426 artworks
Antonio del Castillo y SaavedraSpanish, 1616-16683 artworks
Bernardo CavallinoItalian, 1616-165612 artworks
Bartolomeo CavarozziItalian, 1590-16259 artworks
Mateo CerezoSpanish, 1637-16663 artworks
Cornelis Janssens van CeulenDutch, 1593-1661122 artworks
Philippe de ChampaigneFrench, 1602-167429 artworks
Carlo CignaniItalian, 1628-17196 artworks
Nicolas ColombelFrench, 1644-171720 artworks
Jan CossiersBelgian, 1600-16716 artworks
Juan Sànchez CotànSpanish, 1560-162710 artworks
Jacques CourtoisFrench, 1621-167621 artworks
Antoine Coypel IIFrench, 1661-172282 artworks
Noël Coypel IFrench, 1628-170755 artworks
Antoine CoysevoxFrench, 1640-172029 artworks
Francesco CozzaItalian, 1605-16823 artworks
Giovanni Battista CrespiItalian, 1575-16324 artworks
Pietro da CortonaItalian, 1596-166938 artworks
Jean DaretBelgian, 1614-166812 artworks
Virgina da VezzoItalian, 1601-16382 artworks
Georges de la TourFrench, 1593-165233 artworks
Cecco del CaravaggioItalian, 1610-16258 artworks
Francois De NomeFrench, 1588-16233 artworks
Carlo DolciItalian, 1616-168622 artworks
DomenichinoItalian, 1581-164125 artworks
Domenico Maria VianiItalian, 1668-17113 artworks
Michel DorignyFrench, 1617-16633 artworks
Charles-Alphonse DufresnoyFrench, 1611-166818 artworks
Gaspard DughetFrench, 1615-167586 artworks
Anthony van DyckBelgian, 1599-1641197 artworks
Jacob Foppens van EsBelgian, 1596-166614 artworks
Domenico FettiItalian, 1589-162365 artworks
Marcantonio FranceschiniItalian, 1648-1729115 artworks
Frans Francken the YoungerBelgian, 1581-164228 artworks
Francesco FuriniItalian, 1603-164612 artworks
Giovanna GarzoniItalian, 1600-167021 artworks
Henri GascarFrench, 1635-17013 artworks
Benedetto Gennari the YoungerItalian, 1633-171517 artworks
Artemisia GentileschiItalian, 1593-165233 artworks
Orazio GentileschiItalian, 1563-163930 artworks
Luca GiordanoItalian, 1634-1705118 artworks
François GirardonFrench, 1628-171517 artworks
Giovanni Francesco BarbieriItalian, 1591-166632 artworks
Cornelis Norbertus GysbrechtsBelgian, 1630-168324 artworks
Willem van HaechtBelgian, 1593-16375 artworks
Juan van der HamenSpanish, 1596-163125 artworks
Willem van Herp the ElderBelgian, 1614-167714 artworks
Gerard van HonthorstDutch, 1592-165692 artworks
René-Antoine HouasseFrench, 1645-171040 artworks
Jacob van HulsdonckBelgian, 1582-164710 artworks
Jan Baptist HuysmansBelgian, 1654-17165 artworks
Jacob JordaensBelgian, 1593-167871 artworks
Juan Fernández el LabradorSpanish, 1629-16367 artworks
Laurent de La HyreFrench, 1606-165688 artworks
Christoffel Jacobsz. van der LamenBelgian, 1606-16513 artworks
Giovanni LangettiItalian, 1625-167611 artworks
Nicolas de LargillièreFrench, 1656-174684 artworks
Charles Le BrunFrench, 1619-1690161 artworks
Pierre Ledart IIIFrench, 1628-16981 artwork
Jean LemaireFrench, 1597-165924 artworks
Jean Le MotteFrench, 1653-16855 artworks
Eustache Le SueurFrench, 1617-1655115 artworks
Johann LissGerman, 1595-163115 artworks
Carstian LuyckxBelgian, 1623-167512 artworks
Dirk MaasDutch, 1659-1717
Juan Bautista MaínoSpanish, 1581-164922 artworks
Francisco de Burgos MantillaSpanish, 1612-16721 artwork
Carlo MarattaItalian, 1625-171311 artworks
Master of the AcquavellaItalian, 1600-16504 artworks
Henri MauperchéFrench, 1602-168616 artworks
Sebastiano MazzoniItalian, 1611-16784 artworks
Bernardino MeiItalian, 1612-16767 artworks
Nicolas MignardFrench, 1606-16683 artworks
Pierre MignardFrench, 1612-169571 artworks
Louise MoillonFrench, 1609-169620 artworks
Cristoforo MunariItalian, 1667-17203 artworks
Bartolomé Esteban MurilloSpanish, 1617-168273 artworks
Marc NattierFrench, 1642-17051 artwork
Josefa de Ayala y ObidosSpanish, 1630-168415 artworks
Jacob van Oost the ElderBelgian, 1603-167121 artworks
Francisco de PalaciosSpanish, 1623-16521 artwork
Pietro PaoliniItalian, 1603-168111 artworks
Pierre Patel the ElderFrench, 1605-16762 artworks
Clara PeetersBelgian, 1594-165715 artworks
Antonio de PeredaSpanish, 1611-167819 artworks
Antonio PonceSpanish, 1608-16776 artworks
Nicolas PoussinFrench, 1594-1665172 artworks
Andrea PozzoItalian, 1642-17099 artworks
Mattia PretiItalian, 1613-169930 artworks
Felipe RamírezSpanish, 1628-16311 artwork
Giovan Battista ReccoItalian, 1615-16602 artworks
Giuseppe ReccoItalian, 1634-16959 artworks
Nicolas RégnierBelgian, 1591-166723 artworks
Guido ReniItalian, 1575-164249 artworks
Jusepe de RiberaSpanish, 1591-165297 artworks
Sebastiano RicciItalian, 1659-1734158 artworks
Salvator RosaItalian, 1615-167337 artworks
Peter Paul RubensBelgian, 1577-1640463 artworks
Antonio del Castillo y SaavedraSpanish, 1616-16686 artworks
Andrea SacchiItalian, 1599-16612 artworks
Carlo SaraceniItalian, 1579-162013 artworks
Giovanni Salvi da SassoferratoItalian, 1609-168545 artworks
Bartolomeo SchedoniItalian, 1578-161514 artworks
Daniel Schultz the YoungerPolish, 1615-16832 artworks
Gerard SeghersBelgian, 1591-165116 artworks
Jan SiberechtsBelgian, 1627-170319 artworks
Frans SnydersBelgian, 1579-165760 artworks
Isaak SoreauGerman, 1604-16444 artworks
Leonello SpadaItalian, 1576-16223 artworks
Massimo StanzioneItalian, 1586-16569 artworks
Hendrick van Steenwijck the YoungerBelgian, 1580-164922 artworks
Matthias StomDutch, 1600-165023 artworks
Sébastien StoskopffGerman, 1597-165715 artworks
Bernardo StrozziItalian, 1581-164467 artworks
Michiel SweertsBelgian, 1618-166450 artworks
David Teniers the YoungerBelgian, 1610-1690231 artworks
Hendrick TerbrugghenDutch, 1588-162949 artworks
Henri TestelinFrench, 1616-16951 artwork
Nicolas TournierFrench, 1590-163912 artworks
Alessandro TurchiItalian, 1578-164935 artworks
French School 18th Century - UnknownFrench, 1700-18003 artworks
Andrea VaccaroItalian, 1604-16706 artworks
Juan de Valdés LealSpanish, 1622-169018 artworks
Abraham-Louis Van LooFrench, 1641-17123 artworks
Jacob Van LooDutch, 1614-167078 artworks
Jean Van LooFrench, 1650-17001 artwork
Ottavio VanniniItalian, 1585-16432 artworks
Gillis van TilborghBelgian, 1625-16789 artworks
Antonio Maria VassalloItalian, 1620-16723 artworks
Diego VelázquezSpanish, 1599-1660136 artworks
Jacopo VignaliItalian, 1592-16642 artworks
Claude VignonFrench, 1593-167024 artworks
Jacob Ferdinand VoetBelgian, 1639-170014 artworks
Lucas Vorsterman1595-16751 artwork
Cornelis de VosBelgian, 1584-165123 artworks
Paul de VosBelgian, 1591-167812 artworks
Simon VouetFrench, 1590-164967 artworks
Sebastian VrancxBelgian, 1573-164719 artworks
Tomàs YepesSpanish, 1595-167439 artworks
Francisco de ZurbaránSpanish, 1598-166491 artworks
Realism
Dates: 1830-1900

Western artists who aimed to depict Nature without artifice or allegory, mostly by painting landscapes and common people at work.

 Artists
Carl BlechenGerman, 1798-184023 artworks
François BonvinFrench, 1817-188738 artworks
Léon BonvinFrench, 1834-186614 artworks
Alejandro CabezaSpanish103 artworks
Gustave CourbetFrench, 1819-1877267 artworks
Honoré DaumierFrench, 1808-187969 artworks
Thomas EakinsAmerican, 1844-1916144 artworks
Count Leopold von KalckreuthGerman, 1855-19281 artwork
Wilhelm LeiblGerman, 1844-190018 artworks
Léon Augustin LhermitteFrench, 1844-192554 artworks
Adolph von MenzelGerman, 1815-1905183 artworks
Peder Mork MønstedDanish, 1859-194160 artworks
Wilhelm TrübnerGerman, 1851-1917119 artworks
Fritz von UhdeGerman, 1848-191173 artworks
Pointilism
Dates: 1885-1910
French artists who used discoveries from optical science to paint with "points" of primary colours, without mixing them. From a distant view, the eye cannot see the dots and blends itself the colours, and so the patterns of the painting appear. This breakthrough led to modern painting.
 Artists
Charles AngrandFrench, 1854-192618 artworks
Henri Edmond CrossFrench, 1856-1910151 artworks
Maximilien LuceFrench, 1858-1941404 artworks
Henri MartinFrench, 1860-1943521 artworks
Hippolyte PetitjeanFrench, 1854-192937 artworks
Georges SeuratFrench, 1859-1891137 artworks
Paul SignacFrench, 1863-1935345 artworks
Theo van RysselbergheBelgian, 1862-1926314 artworks
Jan VijlbriefDutch, 1868-18951 artwork
Surrealism
Dates: 1924-1970
European literature and visual arts movement. Its members created compositions where elements were painted in a realistic way, with accurate brush strokes, but put together in improbable or grotesque poses in order to represent dreams.
 Artists
Victor BraunerRomanian, 1903-196679 artworks
André BretonFrench, 1896-19661 artwork
Salvador DalìSpanish, 1904-198942 artworks
Giorgio de ChiricoGreek, 1888-197831 artworks
Paul DelvauxBelgian, 1897-199417 artworks
Oscar DominguezSpanish, 1906-195841 artworks
Marcel DuchampFrench, 1887-19683 artworks
Max ErnstGerman, 1891-197624 artworks
René MagritteBelgian, 1898-1967302 artworks
Andre MassonFrench, 1896-198721 artworks
Joan MiróSpanish, 1893-198333 artworks
Wolfgang PaalenAustrian, 1905-19595 artworks
Man RayAmerican, 1890-19764 artworks
Kay SageAmerican, 1898-19632 artworks
Jindřich ŠtyrskýCzech, 1899-19424 artworks
Yves TanguyFrench, 1900-195548 artworks
Dorothea TanningGerman, 1910-20121 artwork
Skagen Painters
Dates: 1878-1910
Scandinavian painters who met in the coastal village of Skagen, on the top of Denmark. They followed the French impressionists and painted "en plein air" many bright landscapes and genre scenes, especially fishermen.
 Artists
Anna AncherDanish, 1859-193562 artworks
Michael Peter AncherDanish, 1849-192758 artworks
Christian KrohgDanish, 1852-192514 artworks
Johan KrouthénSwedish, 1858-1932472 artworks
Marie Triepcke KroyerDanish, 1867-19401 artwork
Peder Severin KroyerNorwegian, 1851-190986 artworks
Eilif PeterssenNorwegian, 1852-19285 artworks
Fritz ThaulowNorwegian, 1847-1906146 artworks
Laurits TuxenDanish, 1853-19272 artworks
Old Lyme Colony
Dates: 1900-1915
American impressionist artists, who met in Old Lyme (Connecticut) around Childe Hassam.
 Artists
Gifford BealAmerican, 1879-195632 artworks
Emil CarlsenDanish, 1853-1932162 artworks
William ChadwickAmerican, 1879-196211 artworks
William Howe FooteAmerican, 1874-19654 artworks
Frederick Childe HassamAmerican, 1859-1935661 artworks
Wilson IrvineAmerican, 1869-193626 artworks
Willard Leroy MetcalfAmerican, 1858-1925196 artworks
Henry Ward RangerAmerican, 1858-191614 artworks
Theodore RobinsonAmerican, 1852-1896187 artworks
Chauncey Foster RyderAmerican, 1868-19497 artworks
John TwachtmanAmerican, 1853-1902281 artworks
Clark Greenwood VoorheesAmerican, 1871-19338 artworks
Julian Alden WeirAmerican, 1852-1919141 artworks
De Stijl
Dates: 1917-1931
Dutch abstract art movement (also influential in Architecture) which focused on linear and cubic forms.
 Artists
Burgoyne DillerAmerican, 1906-19653 artworks
Theo van DoesburgDutch, 1883-19319 artworks
Vilmos HuszárHungarian, 1884-19601 artwork
Piet MondrianDutch, 1872-194456 artworks
Georges VantongerlooBelgian, 1886-19651 artwork
Art Nouveau
Dates: 1890-1910
 Artists
Jane AtchéFrench, 1872-19373 artworks
Paul Emile BerthonFrench, 1872-19092 artworks
Jules ChéretFrench, 1836-19328 artworks
Georges de FeureFrench, 1868-192812 artworks
Otto FriedrichAustrian, 1862-19375 artworks
Eugène GrassetSwiss, 1845-19172 artworks
Vojtěch HynaisCzech, 1854-19253 artworks
Gustav KlimtAustrian, 1862-1918157 artworks
Margaret MacDonald1865-19333 artworks
Koloman MoserAustrian, 1869-191891 artworks
Alfons Maria MuchaCzech, 1860-193931 artworks
Alexandre de RiquerSpanish, 1856-192010 artworks
Carl StrathmannGerman, 1866-19391 artwork
Franz von StuckGerman, 1863-192859 artworks
Jan TooropDutch, 1858-192815 artworks
Henri de Toulouse-LautrecFrench, 1864-1901300 artworks
Johann Heinrich VogelerGerman, 1872-194246 artworks
Abstract Expressionism
Dates: 1940-1960
Golden age for abstract artists who had settled in the USA because of the war and where they enjoyed great success. Their works were often large and complex pieces which they painted spontaneously, without preparation.
 Artists
Willi BaumeisterGerman, 1889-195514 artworks
William BaziotesAmerican, 1912-19631 artwork
Arshile GorkyAmerican, 1904-1948145 artworks
Hans HofmannGerman, 1880-19662 artworks
Franz KlineAmerican, 1910-19624 artworks
Irene Rice PereiraAmerican, 1902-19711 artwork
Jackson PollockAmerican, 1912-19567 artworks
Mark RothkoLithuanian, 1903-1970284 artworks
Pre-Raphaelites
Dates: 1848-1910
English painters who shared the goal of the German Nazarenes to create an art deprived from the Greco-Roman classicism which was - according to them - prevalent since Raphael, hence their name. So they used themes taken from British history, such as King Arthur legends and Shakespeare's plays, which they illustrated with vibrant colours and melancholy.
 Artists
John Edward Brett, A.R.A.English, 1830-190278 artworks
Ford Madox BrownEnglish, 1821-189352 artworks
Sir Edward Burne-JonesEnglish, 1833-1898141 artworks
John Maler CollierEnglish, 1850-1934216 artworks
James CollinsonEnglish, 1825-188111 artworks
Evelyn de MorganEnglish, 1855-191955 artworks
Walter Howell DeverellEnglish, 1827-18548 artworks
John Rogers HerbertEnglish, 1810-18901 artwork
William Holman HuntEnglish, 1827-191072 artworks
Edmund Blair LeightonEnglish, 1853-192293 artworks
Sir John Everett MillaisEnglish, 1829-1896147 artworks
William MorrisEnglish, 1834-18964 artworks
Dante Gabriel RossettiEnglish, 1828-1882211 artworks
Anthony Frederick SandysEnglish, 1829-1904112 artworks
Elizabeth SiddalEnglish, 1829-18623 artworks
John Roddam Spencer-StanhopeEnglish, 1829-190815 artworks
Frederic George StephensEnglish, 1838-19075 artworks
Marie Spartali Stillman1844-19278 artworks
Annie SwynnertonEnglish, 1844-19338 artworks
John William WaterhouseEnglish, 1849-191789 artworks
Renaissance
Dates: 1440-1590
Period of fundamental discoveries in arts and science which shaped the modern western world. In painting, artists wanted to depict realistic proportions and colours by taking their inspiration from classical antiquity.
 Artists
Pieter AertsenDutch, 1508-157533 artworks
Alessandro AlloriItalian, 1535-160731 artworks
Albrecht AltdorferGerman, 1480-153832 artworks
Erhard AltdorferGerman, 1480-15622 artworks
Fra AngelicoItalian, 1387-1455143 artworks
Lucia AnguissolaItalian, 1538-15658 artworks
Biagio d'AntonioItalian, 1446-151610 artworks
Jacopo di AntonioItalian, 1427-14544 artworks
Amico AspertiniItalian, 1475-155215 artworks
Il BacchiaccaItalian, 1494-155726 artworks
Alesso BaldovinettiItalian, 1425-14997 artworks
Hans Baldung GrienGerman, 1485-154594 artworks
Jacopo BarbariItalian, 1445-151635 artworks
Federico BarocciItalian, 1535-161249 artworks
Fra BartolommeoItalian, 1472-151719 artworks
Marco BasaitiItalian, 1476-153021 artworks
Francesco Bassano the YoungerItalian, 1549-159227 artworks
Gerolamo BassanoItalian, 1566-16211 artwork
Jacopo BassanoItalian, 1510-159252 artworks
Leandro BassanoItalian, 1557-162219 artworks
Gentile BelliniItalian, 1429-150728 artworks
Giovanni BelliniItalian, 1430-1516163 artworks
Jacopo BelliniItalian, 1400-147034 artworks
Ambrogio BergognoneItalian, 1453-152310 artworks
Pedro BerrugueteSpanish, 1450-150420 artworks
John Bettes the ElderEnglish, 1531-15703 artworks
Joachim BeuckelaerBelgian, 1534-157435 artworks
Giovanni Francesco BezziItalian, 1510-15714 artworks
Boccaccio BoccaccinoItalian, 1467-15251 artwork
Giovanni Antonio BoltraffioItalian, 1467-151622 artworks
Benedetto BonfigliItalian, 1420-14963 artworks
Paris BordoneItalian, 1500-157160 artworks
Sandro BotticelliItalian, 1445-1510138 artworks
Francesco BotticiniItalian, 1446-14977 artworks
Jean BoulogneBelgian, 1529-160822 artworks
Donato BramanteItalian, 1444-15142 artworks
BramantinoItalian, 1456-15309 artworks
Jörg Breu the ElderGerman, 1475-15374 artworks
Agnolo BronzinoItalian, 1503-157298 artworks
Bartholomäeus Bruyn the ElderGerman, 1493-155523 artworks
Michelangelo BuonarrotiItalian, 1475-1564168 artworks
Vincenzo CampiItalian, 1536-159110 artworks
Polidoro da CaravaggioItalian, 1497-15436 artworks
Giovanni CarianiItalian, 1485-154721 artworks
Giovanni Francesco CarotoItalian, 1480-15554 artworks
Girolamo da CarpiItalian, 1501-15569 artworks
Vincenzo CatenaItalian, 1470-153127 artworks
Joos van CleveDutch, 1485-154053 artworks
Franҫois ClouetFrench, 1515-157228 artworks
CorreggioItalian, 1489-153459 artworks
Piero di CosimoItalian, 1462-152215 artworks
Francesco del CossaItalian, 1430-147716 artworks
Lorenzo Costa the ElderItalian, 1460-153525 artworks
Jean de CourtFrench, 1530-15842 artworks
Lucas Cranach the ElderGerman, 1472-1553142 artworks
Carlo CrivelliItalian, 1430-149528 artworks
Taddeo CrivelliItalian, 1425-14791 artwork
Adriaen van CronenburgDutch, 1525-16043 artworks
Cima da ConeglianoItalian, 1459-151729 artworks
Antonello da MessinaItalian, 1430-147927 artworks
Herri Met de BlesBelgian, 1510-15602 artworks
Jean DecourtFrench, 1530-15853 artworks
Andrea del CastagnoItalian, 1421-145713 artworks
Neri di BicciItalian, 1419-14919 artworks
Lorenzo di CrediItalian, 1459-15377 artworks
Masolino di CristoforoItalian, 1383-144715 artworks
Matteo di Giovanni di BartoloItalian, 1430-149511 artworks
DonatelloItalian, 1386-146627 artworks
Battista DossiItalian, 1490-15484 artworks
Dosso DossiItalian, 1490-154242 artworks
Hans EworthDutch, 1520-157813 artworks
Frans FlorisBelgian, 1516-157011 artworks
Lavinia FontanaItalian, 1552-161419 artworks
Vincenzo FoppaItalian, 1430-151516 artworks
Pier Francesco Jacopo di FoschiItalian, 1502-15676 artworks
Piero della FrancescaItalian, 1422-149211 artworks
Francesco FranciaItalian, 1450-151722 artworks
Il GarofaloItalian, 1481-155943 artworks
Domenico GhirlandaioItalian, 1449-149493 artworks
Francesco di Giorgio MartiniItalian, 1439-15025 artworks
GiorgioneItalian, 1478-151031 artworks
Palma GiovaneItalian, 1544-16289 artworks
Matteo di GiovanniItalian, 1430-149522 artworks
Jan Gossaert (Called Mabuse)Belgian, 1478-153225 artworks
Benozzo GozzoliItalian, 1421-14978 artworks
Matthias GrunewaldGerman, 1470-152818 artworks
Hans Holbein the YoungerGerman, 1497-1543153 artworks
Adriaen IsenbrandtBelgian, 1485-155116 artworks
Neroccio de' LandiItalian, 1447-150011 artworks
Leonardo da VinciItalian, 1452-151943 artworks
Lorenzo LeonbrunoItalian, 1489-15371 artwork
Filippino LippiItalian, 1457-150485 artworks
Fra Filippo LippiItalian, 1406-146968 artworks
Lorenzo LottoItalian, 1480-1557106 artworks
Bernardino LuiniItalian, 1480-153231 artworks
Girolamo MacchiettiItalian, 1535-15924 artworks
Zanobi MachiavelliItalian, 1418-14793 artworks
Pedro MachucaSpanish, 1485-15502 artworks
Hans Maler zu SchwazGerman, 1480-152910 artworks
Jan MandijnDutch, 1500-15603 artworks
Andrea MantegnaItalian, 1431-1506104 artworks
MasaccioItalian, 1401-142821 artworks
Juan Vicente MasipSpanish, 1475-15503 artworks
Cornelis MassysBelgian, 1510-15563 artworks
Master of 1518Belgian, 1490-15305 artworks
Filippo MazzolaItalian, 1460-15053 artworks
Ambrosi MelozzoItalian, 1438-149412 artworks
Domenico di MichelinoItalian, 1417-14912 artworks
Bartolomeo MontagnaItalian, 1450-152321 artworks
Anthonis MorDutch, 1517-157733 artworks
Moretto da BresciaItalian, 1498-155431 artworks
Giovanni Battista MoroniItalian, 1523-157850 artworks
Jan MostaertDutch, 1472-155516 artworks
Bernard van OrleyBelgian, 1487-15413 artworks
Lelio OrsiItalian, 1511-15877 artworks
Marco PalmezzanoItalian, 1460-15394 artworks
Giovanni di PaoloItalian, 1398-148237 artworks
ParmigianinoItalian, 1503-154028 artworks
Bartolomeo PassarottiItalian, 1529-15926 artworks
Pietro PeruginoItalian, 1445-152393 artworks
Marco PinoItalian, 1521-15837 artworks
PinturicchioItalian, 1454-15139 artworks
Sebastiano del PiomboItalian, 1485-154724 artworks
Antonio del PollaiuoloItalian, 1433-149810 artworks
Piero PollaiuoloItalian, 1441-149611 artworks
Jacopo PontormoItalian, 1494-155742 artworks
Pieter PourbusBelgian, 1523-15841 artwork
Giovanni Ambrogio de PredisItalian, 1455-150814 artworks
Scipione PulzoneItalian, 1542-15988 artworks
RaphaelItalian, 1483-1520195 artworks
Ercole de' RobertiItalian, 1451-149618 artworks
Girolamo RomaniItalian, 1485-15662 artworks
Gerolamo RomaninoItalian, 1485-156620 artworks
Antoniazzo RomanoItalian, 1430-151012 artworks
Giulio RomanoItalian, 1499-154611 artworks
Cosimo RosselliItalian, 1439-150723 artworks
Rosso FiorentinoItalian, 1494-154017 artworks
Francesco SalviatiItalian, 1510-156321 artworks
Giuliano da SangalloItalian, 1445-15161 artwork
Andrea del SartoItalian, 1486-153017 artworks
Giovanni Girolamo SavoldoItalian, 1480-15489 artworks
Andrea SchiavoneItalian, 1512-156311 artworks
Jacob SeiseneggerAustrian, 1505-15674 artworks
Jacopo da SellaioItalian, 1442-149317 artworks
Luca SignorelliItalian, 1445-152326 artworks
Andrea SolarioItalian, 1465-152421 artworks
Bartholomaeus SprangerBelgian, 1546-161123 artworks
Isaac Claesz van SwanenburgDutch, 1537-16245 artworks
Domenico TintorettoItalian, 1560-163513 artworks
Jacopo TintorettoItalian, 1518-1594209 artworks
TitianItalian, 1488-1576236 artworks
Michele TosiniItalian, 1503-157711 artworks
Girolamo da Travis the YoungerItalian, 1497-15444 artworks
Cosmè TuraItalian, 1430-149526 artworks
Paolo UccelloItalian, 1397-147511 artworks
Perino del VagaItalian, 1501-15478 artworks
Jan Sanders Van HemessenBelgian, 1500-156612 artworks
Jacopo Palma il VecchioItalian, 1480-152817 artworks
Bartolomeo VenetoItalian, 1480-154636 artworks
Domenico VenezianoItalian, 1410-146116 artworks
Bonifazio VeroneseItalian, 1487-155314 artworks
Paolo VeroneseItalian, 1528-1588544 artworks
Andrea del VerrocchioItalian, 1435-148829 artworks
Alvise VivariniItalian, 1442-15038 artworks
Antonio VivariniItalian, 1410-148016 artworks
Bartolommeo VivariniItalian, 1432-149917 artworks
Daniele da VolterraItalian, 1509-15664 artworks
Joos van WingheBelgian, 1544-16032 artworks
Marco ZoppoItalian, 1433-14789 artworks
Academism
Dates: 1850-1910
Artists sponsored by the State who focused on historical and mythological themes, with many nude allegories, or idealized genre scenes in order to represent the perfect beauty in art. The style was a sort of synthesis of the previous official art movements, especially Romanticism and Neoclassicism.
 Artists
Louis-Emile AdanFrench, 1839-19379 artworks
Alfred Pierre AgacheFrench, 1843-19153 artworks
Laura Theresa Alma-Tadema1852-19097 artworks
Sir Lawrence Alma-TademaDutch, 1836-1912224 artworks
Abbey Altson1866-194932 artworks
Eugène-Emmanuel Amaury-DuvalFrench, 1808-188515 artworks
Friedrich von AmerlingAustrian, 1803-188793 artworks
Edward Armitage1817-189626 artworks
Stefan BakalowiczPolish, 1857-19473 artworks
Paul BaudryFrench, 1828-18862 artworks
Leon BenouvilleFrench, 1821-18594 artworks
Ernst BergerAustrian, 1857-19191 artwork
Edouard BissonFrench, 1856-19394 artworks
Eugene de BlaasItalian, 1843-1932151 artworks
Léon Joseph Florentin BonnatFrench, 1833-192254 artworks
Pierre-Louis BouchardFrench, 1831-18891 artwork
Elizabeth Jane Gardner BouguereauAmerican, 1837-19228 artworks
William BouguereauFrench, 1825-1905436 artworks
Charles Edouard BoutibonneFrench, 1816-18978 artworks
Eugen Felix Prosper BrachtGerman, 1842-192140 artworks
Anton BraithGerman, 1836-19056 artworks
Alexandre CabanelFrench, 1823-188971 artworks
Alejandro CabezaSpanish103 artworks
Joseph CaraudFrench, 1821-190539 artworks
Charles Auguste Emile Carolus-DuranFrench, 1838-191784 artworks
Paul Emile ChabasFrench, 1869-19377 artworks
Charles ChaplinFrench, 1825-189139 artworks
Georges Jules Victor ClairinFrench, 1843-191918 artworks
Louis-Joseph-Raphael CollinFrench, 1850-191610 artworks
Léon-François ComerreFrench, 1850-191619 artworks
Tito ContiItalian, 1842-192413 artworks
Charles West CopeEnglish, 1811-189042 artworks
Fernand CormonFrench, 1845-19246 artworks
Pierre-Auguste CotFrench, 1837-18838 artworks
Gustave CourtoisFrench, 1852-19232 artworks
Thomas CoutureFrench, 1815-187926 artworks
Władysław CzachórskiPolish, 1850-191136 artworks
Pascal Dagnan-BouveretFrench, 1852-192948 artworks
Henri-Camille DangerFrench, 1857-19376 artworks
Edouard-Joseph DantanFrench, 1848-18974 artworks
Henri DelabordeFrench, 1811-18992 artworks
Paul DelarocheFrench, 1797-185625 artworks
Jules-Élie DelaunayFrench, 1828-18912 artworks
Francois Alfred DelobbeFrench, 1835-19205 artworks
Cesare Augusto DettiItalian, 1847-191435 artworks
Emil DoerstlingGerman, 1859-19402 artworks
Gustave DoyenFrench, 1837-?6 artworks
Herbert James DraperEnglish, 1864-192054 artworks
Emile Eisman-SemenowskyPolish, 1857-191195 artworks
Erasmus EngertAustrian, 1796-18711 artwork
Delphin EnjolrasFrench, 1857-1945183 artworks
Rudolf ErnstAustrian, 1854-193240 artworks
Luis FaleroSpanish, 1851-189627 artworks
Benjamin Eugene FichelFrench, 1826-18957 artworks
Albert Auguste FourieFrench, 1854-19373 artworks
Juan Jose Gárate y ClaveroSpanish, 1869-19391 artwork
Jules-Arsène GarnierFrench, 1847-18891 artwork
Carl GehrtsGerman, 1853-18981 artwork
Theodore GerardBelgian, 1829-189534 artworks
Jean-Léon GérômeFrench, 1824-1904235 artworks
Paul GervaisFrench, 1859-19342 artworks
Henri GervexFrench, 1852-192914 artworks
Victor Gabriel GilbertFrench, 1847-1933111 artworks
Jules GirardetFrench, 1856-193816 artworks
Henry Gillard Glindoni1852-191313 artworks
John William GodwardEnglish, 1861-1922260 artworks
Ernest HébertFrench, 1817-19081 artwork
Jean-Jacques HennerFrench, 1829-1905399 artworks
Hubert von HerkomerEnglish, 1849-19143 artworks
August von HeydenGerman, 1827-18971 artwork
Julius HübnerGerman, 1806-18822 artworks
Vojtěch HynaisCzech, 1854-19253 artworks
Gustave Jean JacquetFrench, 1846-190936 artworks
Paul JaminFrench, 1853-19032 artworks
Peter JanssenGerman, 1844-19085 artworks
Jose Jimenez y ArandaSpanish, 1837-190327 artworks
Frank KirchbachGerman, 1859-19121 artwork
Julius KleverRussian, 1850-1924118 artworks
Gotthardt KuehlGerman, 1850-19155 artworks
Adolphe la LyreFrench, 1850-19355 artworks
Charles Zacherie LandelleFrench, 1812-190810 artworks
Sir Edwin LandseerEnglish, 1802-187335 artworks
Jean-Paul LaurensFrench, 1838-19217 artworks
Jean-Jules-Antoine Lecomte du NouÿFrench, 1842-192314 artworks
Jules Joseph LefebvreFrench, 1836-191149 artworks
Edmund Blair LeightonEnglish, 1853-192293 artworks
Sir Frederic Lord LeightonEnglish, 1830-1896228 artworks
Alexander Louis LeloirFrench, 1843-18847 artworks
Jules Eugène LenepveuFrench, 1819-18981 artwork
Charles-Amable LenoirFrench, 1861-19409 artworks
Henri Léopold LévyFrench, 1840-19044 artworks
John Arthur Lomax1857-192315 artworks
Gabriel Cornelius Ritter von MaxCzech, 1840-191526 artworks
Hugues MerleFrench, 1823-188115 artworks
Albert Joseph Moore, A.R.W.S.English, 1841-189356 artworks
Frederick MorganEnglish, 1847-192734 artworks
Aime-Nicolas MorotFrench, 1850-19134 artworks
Henri-Paul MotteFrench, 1846-19222 artworks
Ernest Normand1857-192313 artworks
Sir William Quiller OrchardsonEnglish, 1832-191089 artworks
Antonio PaolettiItalian, 1833-19127 artworks
Georg PapperitzGerman, 1846-19181 artwork
Leon-Jean-Basile PerraultFrench, 1832-190817 artworks
Henri-Félix-Emmanuel PhilippoteauxFrench, 1818-18844 artworks
Henri Pierre PicouFrench, 1824-189513 artworks
Ferdinand von PilotyGerman, 1828-18954 artworks
Sir Edward John PoynterEnglish, 1836-191970 artworks
René-François-Xavier PrinetFrench, 1861-19463 artworks
Henrietta Rae-NormandEnglish, 1859-19286 artworks
Theodoros RalliGreek, 1852-190935 artworks
Henri RegnaultFrench, 1843-18715 artworks
Pio RicciItalian, 1850-191929 artworks
Briton RiviereEnglish, 1840-192056 artworks
Edwin Thomas Roberts1840-191740 artworks
Georges Antoine RochegrosseFrench, 1859-193836 artworks
Alexander Mark Rossi1840-191642 artworks
Lionel-Noël RoyerFrench, 1852-19261 artwork
Jules ScalbertFrench, 1851-19288 artworks
Eduard SchleichGerman, 1812-18742 artworks
Henri-Guillaume SchlesingerFrench, 1814-18937 artworks
Moritz von SchwindAustrian, 1804-18712 artworks
Guillaume SeignacFrench, 1870-192462 artworks
Paul SieffertFrench, 1874-19577 artworks
Hendryk SiemiradzkiPolish, 1843-190274 artworks
Henryk SiemiradzkiPolish, 1843-1902
Solomon Joseph SolomonEnglish, 1860-19275 artworks
Charles Joseph Frederick SoulacroixFrench, 1825-187950 artworks
Joseph Karl StielerGerman, 1781-185865 artworks
Nikolai SverchkovRussian, 1817-189814 artworks
Henri Adrien TanouxFrench, 1865-192318 artworks
Eugène Romain ThirionFrench, 1839-19192 artworks
Hans ThomaGerman, 1839-1924135 artworks
Edoardo TofanoItalian, 1838-19203 artworks
Auguste ToulmoucheFrench, 1829-189044 artworks
Benjamin VautierSwiss, 1829-18987 artworks
Emile VernonFrench, 1872-191954 artworks
Jehan-Georges VibertFrench, 1840-190248 artworks
Sándor von WagnerHungarian, 1838-19191 artwork
Ferdinand Georg WaldmüllerAustrian, 1793-1865145 artworks
John William WaterhouseEnglish, 1849-191789 artworks
Jean-Joseph WeertsFrench, 1847-19271 artwork
Charles WildaAustrian, 1854-19071 artwork
William Clarke WontnerEnglish, 1857-193027 artworks
Eduardo Zamacois y ZabalaSpanish, 1841-18712 artworks
Fritz Zuber-BuhlerSwiss, 1822-189653 artworks
Nazarene
Dates: 1809-1850

German Romantic painters settled in Rome who regarded the art since 1500 as degenerate and pagan. They favoured instead works produced during the Early Renaissance; so their paintings looks deliberately old-fashioned, with a focus on Christian and German subjects.

 Artists
Peter von CorneliusGerman, 1783-18678 artworks
Marie EllenriederGerman, 1791-186316 artworks
Joseph von FührichCzech, 1800-18764 artworks
Heinrich Maria von HessGerman, 1798-18632 artworks
Franz IttenbachGerman, 1813-18799 artworks
Ferdinand OlivierGerman, 1785-18411 artwork
Johann Friedrich OverbeckGerman, 1789-186914 artworks
Franz PforrGerman, 1788-18125 artworks
Julius Schnorr von CarolsfeldGerman, 1794-187223 artworks
Ludwig Schnorr von CarolsfeldGerman, 1788-18532 artworks
Philipp VeitGerman, 1793-18779 artworks
Impressionism
Dates: 1863-1920

French artists who painted in 'plein-air', with bright and unmixed colours and slightly apparent brush strokes, in order to give a better rendering of light. The movement then extended to the other Western countries, notably the USA.

 Artists
John Ottis AdamsAmerican, 1851-192756 artworks
Anna AncherDanish, 1859-193562 artworks
Michael Peter AncherDanish, 1849-192758 artworks
Lucy BaconAmerican, 1858-19321 artwork
Laureano BarrauSpanish, 1863-195726 artworks
Jean Frederic BazilleFrench, 1841-187049 artworks
Reynolds BealAmerican, 1867-195139 artworks
Frank W. BensonAmerican, 1862-1951138 artworks
Eugène-Louis BoudinFrench, 1824-18981108 artworks
Olga BoznańskaPolish, 1865-1940155 artworks
Matilda BrowneAmerican, 1869-19472 artworks
John Elwood BundyAmerican, 1853-193314 artworks
Dennis Miller BunkerAmerican, 1861-189057 artworks
Theodore Earl ButlerAmerican, 1861-193656 artworks
Alejandro CabezaSpanish103 artworks
Gustave CaillebotteFrench, 1848-1894249 artworks
Ignacio Pinazo CamarlenchSpanish, 1849-1916176 artworks
Mary CassattAmerican, 1844-1926336 artworks
William ChadwickAmerican, 1879-196211 artworks
William Merritt ChaseAmerican, 1849-1916640 artworks
Alson Skinner ClarkAmerican, 1876-1949117 artworks
Colin Campbell CooperAmerican, 1856-193797 artworks
Lovis CorinthGerman, 1858-1925280 artworks
Paul CornoyerAmerican, 1864-192342 artworks
Edgar DegasFrench, 1834-1917650 artworks
Giuseppe de NittisItalian, 1846-188471 artworks
Frank Vincent DuMondAmerican, 1865-19513 artworks
John Joseph EnnekingAmerican, 1841-191659 artworks
Karoly FerenczyHungarian, 1862-19173 artworks
William Howe FooteAmerican, 1874-19654 artworks
Frederick Carl FriesekeAmerican, 1874-1939247 artworks
Daniel GarberAmerican, 1880-195853 artworks
Eva GonzalesFrench, 1849-188342 artworks
Edmund W. GreacenAmerican, 1876-194919 artworks
Richard B. GruelleAmerican, 1851-19142 artworks
Armand GuillauminFrench, 1841-1927451 artworks
Frederick Childe HassamAmerican, 1859-1935661 artworks
Ludwig von HofmannGerman, 1861-19455 artworks
Blanche Hoschedé-MonetFrench, 1865-194721 artworks
Wilson IrvineAmerican, 1869-193626 artworks
Charles Salis KaelinAmerican, 1858-192921 artworks
Joseph KleitschAmerican, 1882-1931163 artworks
Alexander KoesterGerman, 1864-193231 artworks
Christian KrohgDanish, 1852-192514 artworks
Johan KrouthénSwedish, 1858-1932472 artworks
Marie Triepcke KroyerDanish, 1867-19401 artwork
Peder Severin KroyerNorwegian, 1851-190986 artworks
William Langson LathropAmerican, 1859-193849 artworks
Albert LebourgFrench, 1849-1928214 artworks
Stanislas LépineFrench, 1835-189295 artworks
Richard Haley LeverAustralian, 1876-1958109 artworks
Max LiebermannGerman, 1847-1935209 artworks
Elmer Livingston MacRaeAmerican, 1875-195311 artworks
Édouard ManetFrench, 1832-1883248 artworks
Willard Leroy MetcalfAmerican, 1858-1925196 artworks
Claude Oscar MonetFrench, 1840-19261246 artworks
Adolphe-Joseph-Thomas MonticelliFrench, 1824-1886123 artworks
Berthe MorisotFrench, 1841-1895292 artworks
George NoyesAmerican, 1864-19546 artworks
Frank NuderscherAmerican, 1880-19591 artwork
Leonard OchtmanAmerican, 1854-19357 artworks
Mina Fonda OchtmanAmerican, 1862-19241 artwork
Julian OnderdonkAmerican, 1882-1922185 artworks
Ernst OpplerGerman, 1867-19292 artworks
Walter Frederick OsborneIrish, 1859-190332 artworks
William MacGregor PaxtonAmerican, 1869-1941108 artworks
Lilla Cabot PerryAmerican, 1848-193383 artworks
Eilif PeterssenNorwegian, 1852-19285 artworks
Theodor PhilipsenDanish, 1840-19202 artworks
Camille PissarroFrench, 1830-19031042 artworks
Edward PotthastAmerican, 1857-1927288 artworks
Leo PutzGerman, 1869-194084 artworks
Henry Ward RangerAmerican, 1858-191614 artworks
Edward Willis RedfieldAmerican, 1869-196589 artworks
Robert Lewis ReidAmerican, 1862-192967 artworks
Pierre Auguste RenoirFrench, 1841-19191584 artworks
Theodore RobinsonAmerican, 1852-1896187 artworks
Guy Orlando RoseAmerican, 1867-1925135 artworks
John Singer SargentAmerican, 1856-19251491 artworks
Paul SawyierAmerican, 1865-191715 artworks
Valentin SerovRussian, 1865-1911123 artworks
Edward E. SimmonsAmerican, 1852-193115 artworks
Alfred SisleyFrench, 1839-1899582 artworks
Max SlevogtGerman, 1868-193248 artworks
Henry B. SnellAmerican, 1858-19431 artwork
Joaquin Sorolla y BastidaSpanish, 1863-1923573 artworks
George W. SotterAmerican, 1878-19538 artworks
Otto StarkAmerican, 1859-19268 artworks
Theodore Clement SteeleAmerican, 1847-192690 artworks
Jane SutherlandAustralian, 1853-192813 artworks
Edmund TarbellAmerican, 1862-1938118 artworks
Fritz ThaulowNorwegian, 1847-1906146 artworks
Laurits TuxenDanish, 1853-19272 artworks
John TwachtmanAmerican, 1853-1902281 artworks
Fritz von UhdeGerman, 1848-191173 artworks
Lesser UryGerman, 1861-1931135 artworks
Robert VonnohAmerican, 1858-193353 artworks
Clark Greenwood VoorheesAmerican, 1871-19338 artworks
Elmer WachtelAmerican, 1864-192919 artworks
Marion Kavanaugh (Wachtel)American, 1875-19548 artworks
Julian Alden WeirAmerican, 1852-1919141 artworks
Albert WeisgerberGerman, 1878-19153 artworks
James Abbott McNeill WhistlerAmerican, 1834-1903238 artworks
Federico ZandomeneghiItalian, 1841-1917101 artworks
Abstract art
Dates: 1914-1960

Art movement issued from Expressionism which aimed to abandon figurative art in favour of abstraction. Their compositions therefore represent colourful geometric shapes.

 Artists
Willi BaumeisterGerman, 1889-195514 artworks
William BaziotesAmerican, 1912-19631 artwork
Patrick Henry BruceAmerican, 1881-193638 artworks
Ilya ChashnikRussian, 1902-19297 artworks
Robert DelaunayFrench, 1885-194197 artworks
Burgoyne DillerAmerican, 1906-19653 artworks
Theo van DoesburgDutch, 1883-19319 artworks
Werner DrewesGerman, 1899-19651 artwork
Arshile GorkyAmerican, 1904-1948145 artworks
Auguste HerbinFrench, 1882-1960165 artworks
Ivon HitchensEnglish, 1893-197979 artworks
Hans HofmannGerman, 1880-19662 artworks
Vilmos HuszárHungarian, 1884-19601 artwork
Mainie JellettIrish, 1897-194464 artworks
Wassily KandinskyRussian, 1866-1944236 artworks
Franz KlineAmerican, 1910-19624 artworks
Ivan KliunRussian, 1873-19434 artworks
Frantisec KupkaCzech, 1871-1957117 artworks
Stanton Macdonald-WrightAmerican, 1890-19738 artworks
Kasimir MalevichRussian, 1878-1935109 artworks
Alice Trumbull MasonAmerican, 1904-19711 artwork
László Moholy-NagyHungarian, 1895-194615 artworks
Piet MondrianDutch, 1872-194456 artworks
Ben NicholsonEnglish, 1894-198286 artworks
Irene Rice PereiraAmerican, 1902-19711 artwork
John PiperEnglish, 1903-199294 artworks
Jackson PollockAmerican, 1912-19567 artworks
Liubov PopovaRussian, 1889-192475 artworks
Alfred RethHungarian, 1884-196615 artworks
Mark RothkoLithuanian, 1903-1970284 artworks
Olga RozanovaRussian, 1886-19183 artworks
Kurt SchwittersGerman, 1887-194843 artworks
Nikolai SuetinRussian, 1897-19542 artworks
Sophie Taeuber-ArpSwiss, 1889-19433 artworks
Leon Arthur TutundjianArmenian, 1905-19681 artwork
Georges VantongerlooBelgian, 1886-19651 artwork
Friedrich Vordemberge-GildewartGerman, 1897-19631 artwork
Futurism
Dates: 1909-1944

Italian movement, which also spread to Russia. Both groups tried to urge the modernisation of their archaic country by glorifying technology, speed, machinery and even violence. These ideas led some futurists to support Fascism.

 Artists
Giacomo BallaItalian, 1871-195848 artworks
Umberto BoccioniItalian, 1882-191629 artworks
David Davidovich BurliukRussian, 1882-196732 artworks
Benedetta Cappa MarinettiItalian, 1897-197710 artworks
Carlo CarràItalian, 1881-196621 artworks
Tullio CraliItalian, 1910-20006 artworks
Fortunato DeperoItalian, 1892-19601 artwork
Natalia GoncharovaRussian, 1881-1962106 artworks
Mikhail Fedorovich LarionovRussian, 1881-196451 artworks
Liubov PopovaRussian, 1889-192475 artworks
Luigi RussoloItalian, 1883-19474 artworks
Gino SeveriniItalian, 1883-196633 artworks
Mario SironiItalian, 1885-19618 artworks
Ardengo SofficiItalian, 1879-19641 artwork
Mannerism
Dates: 1520-1600

The last stage of the Renaissance. Artists painted complex works, with distorted characters in uncomfortable poses.

The period was dominated by the Florentine school of Parmigianino, Bronzino and Rosso Fiorentino, then the Venetian school of Titian, Veronese and Tintoretto.

Mannerism also spread to France, with the School of Fontainebleau, and to the Low Countries, where it was called Northern Mannerism.

 Artists
Hans von AachenGerman, 1552-161646 artworks
Niccolo dell' AbateItalian, 1509-157118 artworks
Alessandro AlloriItalian, 1535-160731 artworks
Lucia AnguissolaItalian, 1538-15658 artworks
Sofonisba AnguissolaItalian, 1532-162533 artworks
Giuseppe ArcimboldoItalian, 1527-159374 artworks
Il BacchiaccaItalian, 1494-155726 artworks
Federico BarocciItalian, 1535-161249 artworks
Francesco Bassano the YoungerItalian, 1549-159227 artworks
Gerolamo BassanoItalian, 1566-16211 artwork
Jacopo BassanoItalian, 1510-159252 artworks
Leandro BassanoItalian, 1557-162219 artworks
Giovanni Francesco BezziItalian, 1510-15714 artworks
Jean BoulogneBelgian, 1529-160822 artworks
Agnolo BronzinoItalian, 1503-157298 artworks
Vincenzo CampiItalian, 1536-159110 artworks
Polidoro da CaravaggioItalian, 1497-15436 artworks
El GrecoGreek, 1541-1614194 artworks
Lavinia FontanaItalian, 1552-161419 artworks
Pier Francesco Jacopo di FoschiItalian, 1502-15676 artworks
Palma GiovaneItalian, 1544-16289 artworks
Hendrick GoltziusDutch, 1558-161728 artworks
Girolamo MacchiettiItalian, 1535-15924 artworks
Giovanni Battista MoroniItalian, 1523-157850 artworks
Lelio OrsiItalian, 1511-15877 artworks
ParmigianinoItalian, 1503-154028 artworks
Bartolomeo PassarottiItalian, 1529-15926 artworks
Marco PinoItalian, 1521-15837 artworks
Jacopo PontormoItalian, 1494-155742 artworks
Carlo Portelli da LoroItalian, 1510-15741 artwork
Scipione PulzoneItalian, 1542-15988 artworks
Rosso FiorentinoItalian, 1494-154017 artworks
Francesco SalviatiItalian, 1510-156321 artworks
Andrea SchiavoneItalian, 1512-156311 artworks
Bartholomaeus SprangerBelgian, 1546-161123 artworks
Domenico TintorettoItalian, 1560-163513 artworks
Jacopo TintorettoItalian, 1518-1594209 artworks
Michele TosiniItalian, 1503-157711 artworks
Perino del VagaItalian, 1501-15478 artworks
Paolo VeroneseItalian, 1528-1588544 artworks
Daniele da VolterraItalian, 1509-15664 artworks
Joos van WingheBelgian, 1544-16032 artworks
Post-Impressionism
Dates: 1885-1914
Art movement from the 1880s to the First World War which extended and exaggerated the themes of Impressionism.
 Artists
Charles AngrandFrench, 1854-192618 artworks
Robert BevanEnglish, 1865-192588 artworks
Pierre BonnardFrench, 1867-1947693 artworks
Paul CézanneFrench, 1839-1906579 artworks
Henri Edmond CrossFrench, 1856-1910151 artworks
Malcolm DrummondEnglish, 1880-194530 artworks
Paul GauguinFrench, 1848-1903560 artworks
Harold GilmanEnglish, 1876-191962 artworks
Charles Ginner1878-195283 artworks
Spencer Gore1878-191482 artworks
James Dickson Innes1887-1914161 artworks
Henry LambEnglish, 1883-19603 artworks
Henri LebasqueFrench, 1865-1937598 artworks
Gustave LoiseauFrench, 1865-1935553 artworks
Maximilien LuceFrench, 1858-1941404 artworks
Aristide MaillolFrench, 1861-194475 artworks
James Bolivar Manson1879-194541 artworks
Hippolyte PetitjeanFrench, 1854-192937 artworks
Camille PissarroFrench, 1830-19031042 artworks
Lucien PissarroFrench, 1863-194417 artworks
Maurice PrendergastCanadian, 1858-1924426 artworks
William RatcliffeEnglish, 1882-196329 artworks
Henri RousseauFrench, 1855-1910116 artworks
Georges SeuratFrench, 1859-1891137 artworks
Walter Richard SickertGerman, 1860-1942234 artworks
Paul SignacFrench, 1863-1935345 artworks
Vincent van GoghDutch, 1853-1890904 artworks
Theo van RysselbergheBelgian, 1862-1926314 artworks
Jan VerkadeDutch, 1868-19462 artworks
Jan VijlbriefDutch, 1868-18951 artwork
Edouard VuillardFrench, 1868-1940657 artworks
Rococo
Dates: 1710-1780

The Rococo style dominated the arts, architecture and design during the reign of Louis XV of France (1715-1774); it started in France and Italy, then expanded to most of Europe.

1. Watteau and his fêtes galantes (1710-1730)

Commonly accepted as the creator of the movement, Jean-Antoine Watteau designed a new kind of genre scene, named fêtes galantes, which represented young couples dancing or making music in parks, with a coy eroticism. Watteau immediately gained success among the nobility, especially after the death of King Louis XIV, who had imposed a devout morality in the Court at the end of his reign. By now, freed from the watchful eye of the King, the aristocrats - led by the Regent - looked for happiness and pleasure, as depicted by Watteau. For the first time in modern history, art was made only to please, whereas previous movements were charged with a Christian morality of repentance or austerity. This new paradigm flourished under Rococo, which was the expression of the libertine spirit in painting.

Watteau and his main followers Pater and Lancret represented the first stage of the style, which lasted until the 1730s.

Pilgrimage to Cythera by Watteau (Left) and The Swing by Pater (right)

2. Boucher and the golden age of Rococo (1730-1760)

The golden age of Rococo started with the maturity of the artists born in the 1700s, such as Carle Van Loo, Natoire, and Boucher, the most famous painter of the style. The sketched eroticism of Watteau now became apparent. Indeed, following the path of Lemoyne and Jean Raoux, their subjects taken from the Greco-Roman mythology were principally a pretext to show depictions of passionate love (with the subject of Venus and Adonis) or nudity (with countless representations of Venus and Artemis), which they highlighted with bright and warm colours, and a luxurious vegetation made of flowers and grapes.

Venus and Adonis by Natoire (left), Diana Bathing by Boucher (centre) and The Rape of Europa by Noël-Nicolas Coypel (right).

Apart from their mythological scenes, which were included under the title of "history" painting, they made numerous pastorales - genre scenes of lovers in the countryside - and humoristic compositions with fat and naughty putti (little cupids). These artworks served as decorative panels, especially as dessus-de-porte (above the door), in royal or noble palaces.

Pastorale (left), Love's Target (centre) by Boucher, Cupid and his Troops by Carle Van Loo (right).

In France, these artists were largely patronized by Madame de Pompadour, the official mistress of Louis XV, who bought many pieces to embellish the palaces of Versailles and Marly (destroyed by Napoleon). They also looked abroad to sell their artworks, notably to Frederick II of Prussia and Augustus III of Saxony, who battled to get their best paintings.

On the other hand, Spanish monarchs preferred to call Italian painters directly to their Court, due to the lack of good painters in the country at the time. Thus, Amigoni, Giaquinto and Tiepolo crossed the sea to work in Madrid, where they produced numerous frescos and large canvas for Spanish palaces. However, Italian Rococo was more a continuation of Baroque - with some innovations - than a break from the Baroque style as pronounced as in France, since its members remained mostly focused on biblical subjects and painted with less frivolity than their French counterparts.

Flora and Zephyr by Amigoni (left), Sunrise with The Triumph of Bacchus by Giaquinto (centre) and Study for Allegory of the Planets and Continents by Tiepolo (right)

Lesser patrons essentially commissioned their own portraits, as prices had reduced thanks to the diffusion of pastel, which also shortened the time of production. Since the triumphal journey made in France by the Venetian Rosalba Carreira in 1720, the prevalent type in portraiture was to idealize the sitter, or to represent him in the guise of divinities or allegories. Her most famous followers were Quentin de la Tour and Perronneau. Oil portrait painters also followed in her steps; the most successful in France being Nattier, who painted all the French aristocracy under the traits of allegorical characters.

Portrait of a Woman with a Mask by Rosalba Madame de Pompadour as Diana by Nattier

Portrait of a Woman with a Mask by Rosalba (Left), Portrait of Magdalene Pinceloup de la Grange by Perronneau (centre) and Portrait of Madame de Pompadour as Diana by Nattier (right).

3. Fragonard (1760-1780)

Finally, the last stage of Rococo (1760-1780) was dominated by Fragonard and his followers Lafrensen, Trinquesse, Baudouin and Schall, who painted with an easy brush stroke which gave to their works an unfinished aspect. They were smaller in size in order to be easier to engrave and exhibit in private cabinets. Indeed, many of these works were too explicit to be shown to the public, although engravers widely spread their reproductions. Incidentally, Fragonard remained outside of the French Academy and Salon.

The Lock The Match to Powderkeg by Fragonard

The Lock (left), The Match to Powderkeg (centre) and The Lover Crowned (right) by Fragonard.

The Three Graces (left), Young Lady in a Garden (centre) by Schall, and Night (right) by Baudouin.

The Rococo style came to an end in the 1780s due to its frivolousness and it appeared as a symbol of the aristocratic decadence and corruption. The rising bourgeoisie favoured instead the severe neoclassical style embodied by David, which triumphed with the French Revolution. Besides, the pejorative term of "Rococo" is said to have been coined by Quays, who was perhaps the most resolute proponent of Neoclassicism.

Nevertheless, even at its climax, the movement was never completely dominant, since several painters - lead by Chardin and Oudry - pursued the Dutch realist tradition. However, the movement did not have much influence on English painters, with the possible exception of some of Hogarth's output.

 Artists
Jacopo AmigoniItalian, 1682-175259 artworks
Ivan ArgunovRussian, 1729-180216 artworks
Antonio BalestraItalian, 1666-174021 artworks
Pierre Antoine BaudouinFrench, 1723-17699 artworks
Louis Gabriel BlanchetFrench, 1705-17727 artworks
Giuseppe BonitoItalian, 1707-17895 artworks
François BoucherFrench, 1703-1770605 artworks
Rosalba CarrieraItalian, 1675-1757127 artworks
Andrea CasaliItalian, 1705-178418 artworks
Pierre-Jacques CazesFrench, 1676-17549 artworks
Charles-Michel-Ange ChalleFrench, 1718-177813 artworks
Giovanni Battista CiprianiItalian, 1727-17859 artworks
Jacques CourtinFrench, 1672-17523 artworks
Charles-Antoine Coypel IVFrench, 1694-1752132 artworks
Noël-Nicolas Coypel IIIFrench, 1690-173427 artworks
Donato CretiItalian, 1671-174913 artworks
Maurice Quentin de La TourFrench, 1704-17887 artworks
Jean-Baptiste Deshays de CollevilleFrench, 1729-176517 artworks
George DesmaréesSwedish, 1697-17761 artwork
Gaspare DizianiItalian, 1689-176744 artworks
François-Hubert DrouaisFrench, 1727-177565 artworks
Jean-Honore FragonardFrench, 1732-1806164 artworks
Corrado GiaquintoItalian, 1703-1766116 artworks
Francisco Jose de Goya y LucientesSpanish, 1746-1828213 artworks
Jean-Baptiste GreuzeFrench, 1725-1805151 artworks
Noel HalléFrench, 1711-178117 artworks
Francis Hayman1708-176665 artworks
William HogarthEnglish, 1697-176469 artworks
Niklas LafrensenSwedish, 1737-18073 artworks
Nicolas LancretFrench, 1690-174333 artworks
Sébastien-Jacques LeclercFrench, 1734-178510 artworks
Pierre-Charles Le MettayFrench, 1726-17595 artworks
Franҫois LemoyneFrench, 1688-173716 artworks
Jean-Étienne LiotardSwiss, 1702-1789110 artworks
Auger LucasFrench, 1685-17652 artworks
Gustav LundbergSwedish, 1695-17861 artwork
Franz Anton MaulbertschAustrian, 1724-17968 artworks
Philipe MercierGerman, 1689-176070 artworks
Martin van MeytensSwedish, 1695-17707 artworks
Charles-Joseph NatoireFrench, 1700-1777244 artworks
Jean-Marc NattierFrench, 1685-176695 artworks
Jean-Baptiste PaterFrench, 1695-173642 artworks
Giovanni Antonio PellegriniItalian, 1675-174110 artworks
Jean-Baptiste PerronneauFrench, 1715-178329 artworks
Antoine PesneFrench, 1683-175727 artworks
Giovanni Battista PiazzettaItalian, 1683-175443 artworks
Jean-Baptiste Marie PierreFrench, 1714-178921 artworks
Pierre-Antoine QuillardFrench, 1700-17337 artworks
Jean RancFrench, 1674-17352 artworks
Jean RaouxFrench, 1677-173447 artworks
Alexander RoslinSwedish, 1718-179313 artworks
Pietro Antonio RotariItalian, 1707-176223 artworks
Jean-Frédéric SchallFrench, 1752-182569 artworks
Pierre SubleyrasFrench, 1699-174917 artworks
Guillaume Thomas TaravalFrench, 1701-175025 artworks
Hugues TaravalFrench, 1729-178558 artworks
Jean Thierry the YoungerFrench, 1669-17392 artworks
Giandomenico TiepoloItalian, 1727-18044 artworks
Giovanni Battista TiepoloItalian, 1696-1770117 artworks
Johann Heinrich Tischbein the ElderGerman, 1722-1789135 artworks
Louis TocquéFrench, 1696-17722 artworks
Gaspare TraversiItalian, 1722-17706 artworks
Pierre Charles TrémolièresFrench, 1703-17394 artworks
Louis de TrinquesseFrench, 1746-18006 artworks
Jean-François de TroyFrench, 1679-175238 artworks
French School 18th Century - UnknownFrench, 1700-18003 artworks
Carle Van LooFrench, 1705-1765307 artworks
Charles-Amédée-Philippe Van LooFrench, 1719-17957 artworks
François Van LooFrench, 1708-17328 artworks
Jean-Baptiste Van LooFrench, 1684-174578 artworks
Louis-Michel Van LooFrench, 1707-17713 artworks
Nicolas VleughelsFrench, 1688-173721 artworks
Guillaume VoiriotFrench, 1713-17992 artworks
Jean-Antoine WatteauFrench, 1684-1721101 artworks
Johann Georg Ziesenis der JüngereGerman, 1716-177723 artworks
Francesco ZuccarelliItalian, 1702-178821 artworks
Neoclassicism
Dates: 1760-1820

European art movement mostly dominated by France which aimed to reproduce the Antique style.

1. The forerunners: Mengs and Vien (1750-1780)

The discovery of Pompeii in 1748 and the excavations which followed launched a major breakthrough in the history of art as several frescoes were found nearly intact in former Roman houses. Greco-Roman painting had been so far idealized and for the first time painters could directly take their inspiration from genuine Antique paintings.

Two painters were in Rome at this moment, the German Mengs and the Frenchman Vien (as a Prix de Rome recipient). They both created a new style at odds with the prevalent Rococo by drawing straight lines and epurate shapes and colours, and which also recalled the works of Raphael and Poussin (hence the name of Neoclassicism, after the school of the latter). The classical style of the previous century had never totally vanished, thanks to Pompeo Batoni, who besides became the most wanted portraitist in Rome at that time. Mengs was rejoined by his friend Winckelmann, an archaeologist and art historian, who theorized the new style in his History of Ancient Art, written in 1764.

However, the shift with Rococo remained unfinished as Mengs continued to paint the same subjects as the other artists, with just a visual difference. Besides, Mengs later moved to Madrid to work for the Spanish Court where his style was as much appreciated as Tiepolo's. His early death in 1779 also prevented him from going further in copying the Antique.

Portrait of Charles Joseph Crowle by Batoni (left), Parnassus by Mengs (centre left) Marcus Aurelius Distributing Bread to the People by Vien (centre right), Mars and Venus by Lagrenée the Elder (right)

On the other hand, Vien returned to France and was admitted into the Academy where he taught his art. He was soon followed by Lagrenée the Elder, whose prolificacy helped to spread the new style through the Salon. Encouraged by the philosophers of the Enlightment, for whom Neoclassicism matched their conception of the rational civilisation, the style took off rapidly in 1770s. Among them, Diderot pushed for its recognition as he considered the Antique style to be morally better than the meaningless Rococo; even the new royal couple, Louis XVI and Marie-Antoinette patronized Neoclassicism. Therefore, a second generation of painters emerged during the decade, with artists such as Suvée, Berthélemy, Vincent, Lagrenée the Younger, Peyron, Regnault, and David - the most famous of them.

 

2. David and the Revolution (1780-1800)

David had greater ambitions for Neoclassicism than the mere graphical change with rococo hitherto proposed. He wanted to add a moral value to arts in order to inspire virtuous behaviour and devotion to the public good, with the obvious purpose of denouncing the general corruption which ruled the final years of the Ancien Régime. His works exhibited in the Paris Salons in the 1780s gained so much success that he forced all the other painters to either follow him, or be left forgotten; as a result, late Rococo and Fragonard were immediately swept away.

The most striking of his works was The Oath of the Horatii (left), displayed in 1785, which can be considered as the Neoclassical manifesto. The composition was organised in a symmetric frieze, with all the characters on the same level taking static poses, and a chiaroscuro highlighting the dramatic effect of the Horatii brothers' sacrifice - a typical subject of the movement. Indeed, David and his followers abandoned Christian subjects to devote almost exclusively to Greco-Roman mythology and history, whose events inspired the actors of the French Revolution which started in 1789.

The revolutionaries considered the Roman Republic as a golden age which they tried to recreate, notably by getting rid of all the royal institutions. In the case of the arts, they suppressed the Academy of Painting and Sculpture at the request of David, who had been elected MP of the Republic in 1792. He also organised republican national ceremonies and much of the propaganda for the new régime - like many of his fellow artists; as France was at war, both domestically and against Europe, they focused on classical stories of sacrifice for the public safety. Arts and politics had never been so bound together.

 

The Death of Marat by David (left), Marius at Minturnae by Drouais (centre), The Genius of France between Liberty and Death by Regnault (right).

 

David's workshop was the major art centre of the Western world, being filled of students from Europe and America. During the 1780s, he taught nearly all the painters of the third neoclassical generation, such as Gérard, Girodet, Meynier, Drouais, Guérin and Fabre, and including many women (for example, Benoist, Lemoine, or Ducreux), who followed the earlier examples of Vigée-Lebrun and Angelica Kauffman. Female artists mostly produced portraits and followed the hype of representing the sitter in Antique dress and interior, with many full-length portraits.

Portrait of Lavoisier and his Wife by David (left), Portrait of a Negress by Marie-Guillemine Benoist (centre-left), Portrait of Madame Récamier by Gérard (centre-right), Self-Portrait with Vigée-Lebrun by Marie-Victoire Lemoine (right).

 

However, during the final years of the century, David faced a rebellion in his workshop which was led by a radical group called the Barbus (the "Bearded Ones"), whose members wanted to go further in reproducing the Antique - especially the Greek pottery style. Quays and his friends (Broc, Duqueylard, Franque...) even criticized their master for having stopped halfway in this quest. Fed up by their critics, David finally expelled them from his workshop and therefore condemned their careers. Thus, only very few works from this group are known (Quays did not leave any); from these surviving paintings, we can see that they used unmelted colours with strong contrast, and characters in unusual positions.

The Death of Hyacinth by Broc (left), Ossian Reciting his Songs by Duqueylard (right)

 

3. The Empire Style (1800-1820)

After the failure of the Barbus group, the Neoclassic style moved backwards and softened its severity, matching the historical background. At the end of 1799, Napoléon took power and de facto ended the Revolution. By now, the idealisation of the Roman Republic and its political liberty became irrelevant, and could even face the pernickety censorship of the new régime.

Napoleon nevertheless appreciated the style as he considered himself a new Roman Emperor. He notably refounded a national art academy, called the Académie des Beaux Arts, in order to put the arts at his service. He therefore commissioned many large canvases celebrating his accomplishments - principally his victories - to David and especially Gros, the specialist of the genre. However, his influence in the arts was more visible in architecture (with so many monuments built according to the Antique style) and furniture thanks to the national manufacture of the Gobelins.

 

The Coronation of Napoleon by David (left), Napoleon at Eylau by Gros (right).

 

Meanwhile, artists still continued to paint mythological scenes, but in a much more charming way than before, with many love subjects. The introduction of warm Venetian colours, which they discovered after the conquest of Italy by France, allowed such a change as it eased the coldness of the previous stage. Girodet, Prud'hon, Guérin and also David in his later years, led this trend which lasted until the end of the 1810s.

Mars Disarmed by Venus and the Graces by David (left), Apollo (centre left) and Dance of the Graces Directed by Apollo (centre) by Girodet, Aurora and Cephalus by Guérin (right).

 

Eventually, Neoclassicism, which was closely associated with Napoleon, faded after his defeat at Waterloo (1815) and was replaced by Romanticism throughout Europe. Moreover, after the restoration of the Bourbons, David went into exile in Belgium for having voted for the death of Louis XVI and he could not exercise his influence in Paris any longer. His student Ingres nevertheless pursued nearly alone the neoclassical style in France until the Second Empire and made the link with the Academic style.

 Artists
José Aparicio IngladaSpanish, 1770-18389 artworks
James BarryIrish, 1741-180619 artworks
Pompeo BatoniItalian, 1708-1787414 artworks
Jacques-Antoine BeaufortFrench, 1721-17849 artworks
Marie-Guillemine BenoistFrench, 1768-18268 artworks
Pietro BenvenutiItalian, 1769-18447 artworks
Jean-Simon BerthélemyFrench, 1743-181128 artworks
Jean BrocFrench, 1771-18502 artworks
Antoine-Francois CalletFrench, 1741-182310 artworks
Marie-Gabrielle CapetFrench, 1761-18184 artworks
Gianbettino CignaroliItalian, 1706-177020 artworks
Laurent DabosFrench, 1761-18352 artworks
Jacques-Louis DavidFrench, 1748-1825159 artworks
Jean-Germain DrouaisFrench, 1763-17886 artworks
Antoine DubostFrench, 1769-18252 artworks
Rose-Adelaide DucreuxFrench, 1761-18023 artworks
Paul DuqueylardFrench, 1771-18452 artworks
François-Xavier FabreFrench, 1766-183746 artworks
Jean-Pierre FranqueFrench, 1774-18601 artwork
Étienne-Barthélémy GarnierFrench, 1759-18496 artworks
Louis GauffierFrench, 1762-180117 artworks
François GérardFrench, 1770-183752 artworks
Anne-Louis Girodet de Roussy-TriosonFrench, 1767-1824137 artworks
Antoine-Jean GrosFrench, 1771-183515 artworks
Pierre-Narcisse GuerinFrench, 1774-183310 artworks
Alexandre Charles GuillemotFrench, 1786-18312 artworks
Guillaume Guillon-LethiereFrench, 1760-183212 artworks
Jean-Auguste-Dominique IngresFrench, 1780-1867108 artworks
Angelica KauffmannSwiss, 1741-1807172 artworks
Jean-Jacques LagrenéeFrench, 1739-182129 artworks
Louis Jean François LagrenéeFrench, 1724-180593 artworks
Robert LefevreFrench, 1755-183057 artworks
Marie-Victoire LemoineFrench, 1754-182017 artworks
Anton Raphael MengsGerman, 1728-177952 artworks
Léonor MériméeFrench, 1757-18361 artwork
Charles MeynierFrench, 1768-183210 artworks
Pierre PeyronFrench, 1744-18146 artworks
Francois-Edouard PicotFrench, 1786-18682 artworks
Pierre-Paul Prud'honFrench, 1758-182315 artworks
Pierre-Maurice QuaysFrench, 1779-1803
Claude RameyFrench, 1754-1838
Jean-Baptiste RegnaultFrench, 1754-182924 artworks
Louis Antoine Léon RiesenerFrench, 1808-18783 artworks
Adèle RomanyFrench, 1769-18462 artworks
Carl RottmannGerman, 1797-18501 artwork
Johann Baptist SeeleGerman, 1774-18141 artwork
Joseph Karl StielerGerman, 1781-185865 artworks
Joseph-Benoit SuvéeBelgian, 1743-180718 artworks
Louis-Gustave TaravalFrench, 1739-179418 artworks
Johann Friedrich August TischbeinGerman, 1750-18122 artworks
François Topino-LebrunFrench, 1764-18014 artworks
French School 18th Century - UnknownFrench, 1700-18003 artworks
Jacques-Antoine VallinFrench, 1760-183136 artworks
John VanderlynAmerican, 1775-18529 artworks
Joseph Marie VienFrench, 1716-180946 artworks
Francois-Andre VincentFrench, 1746-181614 artworks
Benjamin WestAmerican, 1738-1820133 artworks
Johann ZoffanyGerman, 1733-1810145 artworks
Classicism
Dates: 1610-1700

Italian and French movement which aimed to counter the eccentricity of Baroque by painting ordered and refined scenes.

1. The Bolognese School

Madonna

.


The Guardian Angel by Franceschini


2. Poussin and the "Atticism"



Allegory of Music by La Hyre, The Muses Melpomene, Erato and Polyhymnia by Le Sueur.


3. The French Academy of Painting and Sculpture


 Artists
Francesco AlbaniItalian, 1578-1660159 artworks
Lubin BauginFrench, 1612-166311 artworks
Bon BoullogneFrench, 1649-171718 artworks
Louis de Boullogne the YoungerFrench, 1654-173346 artworks
Sébastien BourdonFrench, 1616-16711 artwork
Philippe de ChampaigneFrench, 1602-167429 artworks
Carlo CignaniItalian, 1628-17196 artworks
Claude Lorrain (Gellée)French, 1600-1682129 artworks
Nicolas ColombelFrench, 1644-171720 artworks
Antoine Coypel IIFrench, 1661-172282 artworks
Noël Coypel IFrench, 1628-170755 artworks
Antoine CoysevoxFrench, 1640-172029 artworks
DomenichinoItalian, 1581-164125 artworks
Michel DorignyFrench, 1617-16633 artworks
Charles-Alphonse DufresnoyFrench, 1611-166818 artworks
Gaspard DughetFrench, 1615-167586 artworks
Marcantonio FranceschiniItalian, 1648-1729115 artworks
Benedetto Gennari the YoungerItalian, 1633-171517 artworks
François GirardonFrench, 1628-171517 artworks
René-Antoine HouasseFrench, 1645-171040 artworks
Laurent de La HyreFrench, 1606-165688 artworks
Charles Le BrunFrench, 1619-1690161 artworks
Pierre Ledart IIIFrench, 1628-16981 artwork
Jean LemaireFrench, 1597-165924 artworks
Eustache Le SueurFrench, 1617-1655115 artworks
Carlo MarattaItalian, 1625-171311 artworks
Henri MauperchéFrench, 1602-168616 artworks
Nicolas MignardFrench, 1606-16683 artworks
Pierre MignardFrench, 1612-169571 artworks
Marc NattierFrench, 1642-17051 artwork
Pierre Patel the ElderFrench, 1605-16762 artworks
Nicolas PoussinFrench, 1594-1665172 artworks
Guido ReniItalian, 1575-164249 artworks
Hyacinthe RigaudFrench, 1659-174389 artworks
Andrea SacchiItalian, 1599-16612 artworks
Giovanni Salvi da SassoferratoItalian, 1609-168545 artworks
Romanticism
Dates: 1790-1850

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Western artistic movement flourishing during the first half of the 19th century, in painting, music, literature, and poetry.

1. Nationalism

Romanticism was born in Britain and Germany, after its conquest by French armies and the humiliation of the Treaties of Tilsit in 1807, which dismembered Prussia. As a reaction against their occupation, the Germans rejected all the French thought issued from the Enlightenments, conveying the ideas of rationalism, irreligion, and scientific progress, and instead idealised the glorious times of Germany in the Middle Ages - a period despised by the French as archaic.

The Nazarenes: Madonna with Child by Carolsfeld (left), The Introduction of the Arts in Germany through Religion by Veit (centre-left), The Three Mary at the Tomb by Cornelius (centre right), Holy Dorothea by Ittenbach (right)

German nationalism therefore relied on Gothic imagery and a strong Christian faith, notably by a group called the Nazarenes (with Veit, Carolsfeld, Ittenbach, von Cornelius, etc.) who were active in Rome during the first half of the century. They played an important role in the Christian revival in Europe by painting Biblical scenes in an archaic style, thus rejecting the Greco-Roman mythology glorified in France at the same time with Neoclassicism. After the fall of Napoleon, all the West embraced Romanticism.

Visually, Romantic painters also fought against the classical rules, and many styles cohabited. The movement is therefore impossible to describe; its only consistency can be found in the themes chosen. Continuing the interest of the Nazarenes in Gothic times, romantics of all countries looked back at their national history to find inspiration. As Eric Hobsbawm later said, each people "invented" its national traditions and history; scholars wrote the first histories of their nation, from which poets drew lyrical pieces and painters illustrated the most famous events and anecdotes. In France, this national history paintings was the hallmark of the Troubadours group (lead by Fragonard the Younger and Fleury-Richard), whose name referred to their focus on the Middle Ages.

The French Troubadours: Valentine of Milan Mourning her Husband by Fleury-Richard (left), Henri II and Diane de Poitiers in the Studio of Jean Goujon by Fragonard (centre), The Battle of Poitiers, 732, by Steuben.

The Romantics also tried to personify their abstract nation into allegories with distinctive attributes - like ancient gods before. The most famous of these, The Liberty Guiding the People made by Delacroix after the Revolution of 1830, became an iconic work and has embodied France since. In 1848, the first government of the French Second Republic even set a national contest to find the best allegoric representation of the Republic.

National allegories: The Liberty Guiding the People by Delacroix (left), Germania and Italia by Overbeck (centre), Germania by Veit (right)

Current historical events also received attention from the Romantics, who made frequent propaganda artworks in favour of nationalist movements at home and abroad. Goya opened the way with his world-famous diptych on the Spanish insurrection of the 2 and 3 May 1808 against Napoleon, showing both the uprising and its bloody repression. During the 1820s, Romantic produced several propaganda pieces depicting the Greek Independence war, in order to push for an intervention against the Ottoman Empire in the name of Christian solidarity.

National uprisings: The 2nd and 3rd May 1808 by Goya (left), Scene of the Belgian Revolution of 1830 by Wappers (centre right), Greece on the Ruins of Missolonghi by Delacroix (right)

The Springtime of the Peoples in 1848 was at the same time the climax of Romanticism and its end. At first, all the national uprisings appeared as the accomplishment of the national constructions of the previous decades, but their crushing by reactionary forces put an end to the dream. After this failure, official art moved towards a more conservative movement called Academism, except in the UK, where the Preraphaelites retained most of the romantic ideal.

2. Melancholy

Nevertheless, the tragic end of the National uprisings precisely matched the discourse of Romanticism, which was a very pessimistic movement. The Philosophers of the Enlightenments believed in an unstoppable progress improving mankind since the obscurity of the Middle Ages. Seen as wild and primitive, Nature had to be tamed by a rational civilisation, freed from superstition, and expanding through new industrial technologies. Illustrating this optimistic belief, neoclassical scenes frequently took place in geometrical marble palaces of Ancient Rome - at the time considered as the ideal civilisation. As a result, landscape painting nearly disappeared of continental Europe in the final decades of the 18th.

Romanticism had on the contrary an extremely important landscape output. Nature was indeed celebrated because the Romantics believed that Man had been perverted by civilisation, and idealised instead the pastoral times (the theory of the "Noble savage"). This idea was perfectly summarised by the American Thomas Cole: exalted by his discovery of untouched nature in the American West, he made a famous series showing the rise and fall of a classical civilisation. The third picture of the Course of Empire represents the ideal city of the Neoclassicists, but Cole painted what was before (the peaceful savage nature), and what happened after - war destroying civilisation. In the last painting, Nature is shown taking back her rights on the remnants of mankind.

Thomas Cole's Course of Empire: The Savage State, the Pastoral State, Consummation, Destruction, Desolation.

This struggle between nature and civilisation was a recurrent theme in Cole's oeuvre, who painted many landscapes with ancient ruins to show how ephemera human societies were. The Romantics in general had a fascination for ruins, but contrary to the vedutisti of the previous century - who had already made many views of wrecked buildings -, they added either dark clouds in a threatening sky, or a mighty Sun, for their dramatic effect (both could also represent the superiority of God over Man's creations).

Ancient ruins: The Decline of the Carthaginian Empire by Turner (left), Gothic Ruins by Cole (centre), Hadleigh Castle by Constable (right)

Going farther then just painting ruins of ancient civilisations, some romantics tried to depict the precise moment of their destruction, often by God himself, whose wrath against men is shown smashing classical palaces, with tiny and hopeless characters in the foreground. These very impressive apocalyptic landscapes were a hallmark of several British painters led by John Martin and followed by Danby, Colman, and also Turner.

Apocalypse (from left to right): The End of the World by Martin, The Edge of Doom by Colman, The Evening of the Deluge by Turner, The Deluge by Danby.

Destruction in general was a privileged theme of the period and several scenes of fires, shipwrecks, explosions, etc. became the most iconic works of Romanticism.

Destruction: The Burning of the Houses of Parliament by Turner (left), The Last Day of Pompeii by Brulloff.

More serene nature

Man and Woman Contemplating the Moon

Man in awe before Nature: Wanderer above a Sea of Fog, and Man and Woman Contemplating the Moon by Friedrich, Salisbury Cathedral from the Bishop's Ground by Constable

After Romanticism, landscape art lost its supernatural elements to concentrate solely on nature, hence the name of Realism, which was represented by the Barbizon School in France (notably inspired by Constable) and the Hudson River School in the USA.

3. Passions

Poetry

Impossible love

Tragedy and heroism

 

Madness and hubris

 Artists
Leonardo Alenza y NietoSpanish, 1807-18455 artworks
Peder BalkeNorwegian, 1804-188755 artworks
William BlakeEnglish, 1757-182788 artworks
Merry-Joseph BlondelFrench, 1781-185318 artworks
Antoine-Felix Boisselier the YoungerFrench, 1790-18574 artworks
Richard Parkes BoningtonEnglish, 1801-182891 artworks
Karl Pavlovich BrulloffRussian, 1799-1852125 artworks
Léopold BurtheFrench, 1823-18602 artworks
Ágost Elek CanziHungarian, 1808-18665 artworks
Carl Gustav CarusGerman, 1789-18696 artworks
Franz Ludwig CatelGerman, 1778-185617 artworks
Nicolas-Toussaint CharletFrench, 1792-18458 artworks
Théodore ChassériauFrench, 1819-185663 artworks
Léon CognietFrench, 1794-18805 artworks
Thomas ColeEnglish, 1801-1848132 artworks
Samuel Colman1780-184518 artworks
John ConstableEnglish, 1776-1837246 artworks
Peter von CorneliusGerman, 1783-18678 artworks
John Sell CotmanEnglish, 1782-184269 artworks
Johan Christian (J.C.C.) DahlNorwegian, 1788-185797 artworks
Francis DanbyIrish, 1793-1861126 artworks
Alfred Dedreux (see de Dreux)French, 1810-1860
Eugène DelacroixFrench, 1798-1863185 artworks
William Edward Dighton1822-18538 artworks
Louise-Adéone DröllingFrench, 1797-18314 artworks
William DyceScottish, 1806-186472 artworks
Marie EllenriederGerman, 1791-186316 artworks
Alexandre-Evariste FragonardFrench, 1780-185013 artworks
Caspar David FriedrichGerman, 1774-184083 artworks
Joseph von FührichCzech, 1800-18764 artworks
Henry FuseliSwiss, 1741-1825106 artworks
Théodore GéricaultFrench, 1791-182491 artworks
Francisco Jose de Goya y LucientesSpanish, 1746-1828213 artworks
Francesco Paolo HayezItalian, 1791-188179 artworks
Theodor von Holst1810-18442 artworks
Franz IttenbachGerman, 1813-18799 artworks
Louis JanmotFrench, 1814-189224 artworks
Georg Friedrich KerstingGerman, 1785-184730 artworks
Orest KiprenskyRussian, 1778-183638 artworks
Christen KøbkeDanish, 1810-184893 artworks
Joseph KochAustrian, 1768-18397 artworks
Sir Thomas LawrenceEnglish, 1769-1830132 artworks
Carl Friedrich LessingGerman, 1808-188012 artworks
John MartinEnglish, 1789-185471 artworks
Johann Friedrich OverbeckGerman, 1789-186914 artworks
Ernest Fritz PetzholdtDanish, 1805-18387 artworks
Franz PforrGerman, 1788-18125 artworks
Simon QuaglioGerman, 1795-18782 artworks
Alfred RethelGerman, 1816-18597 artworks
Francois Fleury RichardFrench, 1777-18523 artworks
Ludwig RichterGerman, 1803-188449 artworks
August RiedelGerman, 1799-188311 artworks
Philipp Otto RungeGerman, 1777-18105 artworks
Friedrich Wilhelm SchadowGerman, 1788-18623 artworks
Ary SchefferFrench, 1795-185827 artworks
Julius Schnorr von CarolsfeldGerman, 1794-187223 artworks
Ludwig Schnorr von CarolsfeldGerman, 1788-18532 artworks
Moritz von SchwindAustrian, 1804-18712 artworks
Karl Ferdinand SohnGerman, 1805-18675 artworks
Carl SpitzwegGerman, 1808-188537 artworks
Baron Charles SteubenFrench, 1788-18564 artworks
Hermann Anton StilkeGerman, 1803-18603 artworks
Adolph TidemandNorwegian, 1814-18766 artworks
Joseph Mallord William TurnerEnglish, 1775-1851839 artworks
Philipp VeitGerman, 1793-18779 artworks
Horace VernetFrench, 1789-186376 artworks
Baron Egide Charles Gustave WappersBelgian, 1803-18742 artworks
Antoine WiertzBelgian, 1806-18655 artworks