Art Movements
Art movements, schools, and styles

There are many ways to classify the history of art by time period, stylistic features, or geography. Currently The Athenaeum calls all such groupings "art movements". Pick a movement from the menu at left to see the artists associated with the movement.

Der Blaue Reiter
Dates: 1910-1914
German art group from Munich, which also comprised Russian immigrants.
 Artists
Albert BlochGerman, 1882-19616 artworks
David Davidovich BurliukRussian, 1882-196726 artworks
Heinrich CampendonkGerman, 1889-195719 artworks
Lyonel FeiningerAmerican, 1871-195692 artworks
Natalia GoncharovaRussian, 1881-196291 artworks
Alexei JawlenskyRussian, 1864-1941652 artworks
Wassily KandinskyRussian, 1866-1944229 artworks
Paul KleeSwiss, 1879-1940153 artworks
August MackeGerman, 1887-191488 artworks
Franz MarcGerman, 1880-1916339 artworks
Gabrielle MünterGerman, 1878-195586 artworks
Marianne von WerefkinRussian, 1860-19388 artworks
Peredvizhniki
Dates: 1863-1890
Russian artists who wanted to democratize art by travelling in the provinces - hence their name of "ambulants". They mostly painted common people at work and Russian landscapes.
 Artists
Abram Efimovich ArkhipovRussian, 1862-193047 artworks
Alexi Petrovich BogoliubovRussian, 1824-18963 artworks
Nikolai Nikanorovich DubovskoyRussian, 1859-19183 artworks
Arkhin Ivanovich KuindzhiRussian, 1842-19102 artworks
Ivan Nikolaevich KramskoyRussian, 1837-18877 artworks
Nikolai Dmitrievich KuznetsovRussian, 1850-19302 artworks
Isaac Ilich LevitanRussian, 1860-1900124 artworks
Ivan PokhitonovRussian, 1850-19232 artworks
Ilia Efimovich RepinRussian, 1844-1930233 artworks
Ivan Ivanovich ShishkinRussian, 1832-1898162 artworks
Early Renaissance
Dates: 1420-1500
 Artists
Fra AngelicoItalian, 1387-145579 artworks
Jacopo di AntonioItalian, 1427-14544 artworks
Alesso BaldovinettiItalian, 1425-14997 artworks
Gentile BelliniItalian, 1429-150727 artworks
Giovanni BelliniItalian, 1430-1516162 artworks
Jacopo BelliniItalian, 1400-147033 artworks
Pedro BerrugueteSpanish, 1450-150419 artworks
Boccaccio BoccaccinoItalian, 1467-15251 artwork
Benedetto BonfigliItalian, 1420-14963 artworks
Sandro BotticelliItalian, 1445-1510133 artworks
Frencesco BotticiniItalian, 1446-14975 artworks
Carlo CrivelliItalian, 1435-149520 artworks
Taddeo CrivelliItalian, 1425-14791 artwork
Antonello da MessinaItalian, 1430-14796 artworks
Andrea del CastagnoItalian, 1421-14575 artworks
Neri di BicciItalian, 1419-14916 artworks
Matteo di Giovanni di BartoloItalian, 1430-149511 artworks
Giovanni di PaoloItalian, 1398-148228 artworks
Vincenzo FoppaItalian, 1430-151516 artworks
Piero della FrancescaItalian, 1422-149210 artworks
Domenico GhirlandaioItalian, 1449-149491 artworks
Matteo di GiovanniItalian, 1430-14954 artworks
Benozzo GozzoliItalian, 1421-14977 artworks
Fra Filippo LippiItalian, 1406-146967 artworks
Zanobi MachiavelliItalian, 1418-14793 artworks
Andrea MantegnaItalian, 1431-1506102 artworks
MasaccioItalian, 1401-142820 artworks
Ambrosi MelozzoItalian, 1438-149412 artworks
Domenico di MichelinoItalian, 1417-14911 artwork
Antonio del PollaiuoloItalian, 1433-14989 artworks
Piero PollaiuoloItalian, 1441-149611 artworks
Ercole de' RobertiItalian, 1451-149618 artworks
Antoniazzo RomanoItalian, 1430-15108 artworks
Cosmè TuraItalian, 1430-149520 artworks
Paolo UccelloItalian, 1397-147511 artworks
Domenico VenezianoItalian, 1410-14619 artworks
Antonio VivariniItalian, 1410-14807 artworks
Marco ZoppoItalian, 1433-14788 artworks
Barbizon school
Dates: 1830-1880
French realist school. Its painters met in the village of Barbizon, near Paris. They mostly represented peasants at work in the fields.
 Artists
Pierre BilletFrench, 1837-19221 artwork
Jules-Adolphe BretonFrench, 1827-190667 artworks
Jean-Baptiste-Camille CorotFrench, 1796-1875561 artworks
Charles Francois DaubignyFrench, 1817-187870 artworks
Narcisse Diaz de la PenaFrench, 1807-187634 artworks
Jean-François MilletFrench, 1814-187577 artworks
Théodore RousseauFrench, 1812-186789 artworks
Paul-Désiré TrouillebertFrench, 1829-190032 artworks
Constant TroyonFrench, 1810-186551 artworks
Cubism
Dates: 1907-1925
 Artists
Alexandr ArchipenkoUkrainian, 1887-19648 artworks
Georges BraqueFrench, 1882-1963317 artworks
Robert DelaunayFrench, 1885-194144 artworks
Roger de la FresnayeFrench, 1885-192581 artworks
Albert GleizesFrench, 1881-195374 artworks
Juan GrisSpanish, 1887-1927215 artworks
Henri LaurensFrench, 1885-19547 artworks
Henri Le FauconnierFrench, 1881-19464 artworks
Fernand LégerFrench, 1881-1955417 artworks
André LhoteFrench, 1885-1962293 artworks
Louis MarcoussisPolish, 1883-194148 artworks
Jean MetzingerFrench, 1883-1956132 artworks
Pablo PicassoSpanish, 1881-1973124 artworks
Alfred RethHungarian, 1884-196614 artworks
Les Nabis
Dates: 1888-1905
Group of French painters active in the 1890s, who focused on painting as a decorative art, exploring pattern and ornament.
 Artists
Pierre BonnardFrench, 1867-1947634 artworks
Maurice DenisFrench, 1870-1943291 artworks
Henri Gabriel IbelsFrench, 1867-19362 artworks
Georges LacombeFrench, 1868-191612 artworks
Aristide MaillolFrench, 1861-194472 artworks
Paul RansonFrench, 1864-190979 artworks
József Rippl-RónaiHungarian, 1861-1930209 artworks
Ker Xavier RousselFrench, 1867-194421 artworks
Paul SerusierFrench, 1864-1927146 artworks
Felix VallottonSwiss, 1865-1925168 artworks
Jan VerkadeDutch, 1868-19462 artworks
Edouard VuillardFrench, 1868-1940632 artworks
Hudson River School
Dates: 1825-1870
American art movement from 1825 to 1870, typified by landscape paintings of the Hudson River Valley in New York state with a Romantic aesthetic.
 Artists
Albert BierstadtAmerican, 1830-1902357 artworks
Alfred Thompson BricherAmerican, 1837-1908218 artworks
John W. CasilearAmerican, 1811-189321 artworks
Frederic Edwin ChurchAmerican, 1826-1900204 artworks
Thomas ColeEnglish, 1801-1848127 artworks
Samuel ColmanEnglish, 1780-184520 artworks
Jasper Francis CropseyAmerican, 1823-1900193 artworks
Thomas DoughtyAmerican, 1793-185645 artworks
Asher B. DurandAmerican, 1796-1886129 artworks
Sanford Robinson GiffordAmerican, 1823-1880168 artworks
James McDougal HartAmerican, 1828-190136 artworks
William M. HartAmerican, 1823-189431 artworks
William Stanley HaseltineAmerican, 1835-190080 artworks
Herman HerzogAmerican, 1832-193290 artworks
Thomas HillEnglish, 1829-1908105 artworks
David JohnsonAmerican, 1827-190869 artworks
John Frederick KensettAmerican, 1816-1872161 artworks
Jervis McEnteeAmerican, 1828-189146 artworks
William Rickarby MillerAmerican, 1818-189313 artworks
Thomas MoranAmerican, 1837-1926309 artworks
Francis A. SilvaAmerican, 1835-188667 artworks
Robert Walter WeirAmerican, 1803-188919 artworks
Dutch Golden Age
Dates: 1620-1680
Flourishing period in the Dutch Republic, with a global production of several millions of still lifes, portraits, genre scenes and landscapes - genres hitherto neglected in favour of religious painting.
 Artists
Willem van AelstDutch, 1626-168336 artworks
Pieter Jansz. van AschDutch, 1603-16789 artworks
Bartholomeus AssteynDutch, 1607-17704 artworks
Balthasar van der AstDutch, 1593-165723 artworks
Barent AvercampDutch, 1612-167916 artworks
Hendrick AvercampDutch, 1585-163437 artworks
Jacob Adriaensz BackerDutch, 1608-165127 artworks
David BaillyDutch, 1584-16675 artworks
Ludolf BakhuizenDutch, 1630-170877 artworks
Ludolf BakhuizenDutch, 1630-1708
Bartholomeus van BassenDutch, 1590-165211 artworks
Jan Abrahamsz BeerstratenDutch, 1622-16667 artworks
Cornelis Pietersz BegaDutch, 1620-166417 artworks
Nicolaes BerchemDutch, 1620-1683
Nicolaes BerchemDutch, 1620-168327 artworks
Gerrit Adriaenszoon BerckheydeDutch, 1638-169812 artworks
Job Adriaenszoon BerckheydeDutch, 1630-16931 artwork
Christoffel van den BergheDutch, 1590-16456 artworks
Cornelis BisschopDutch, 1630-167410 artworks
Ferdinand BolDutch, 1616-168050 artworks
Hans BollongierDutch, 1600-16734 artworks
Gerard ter Borch the YoungerDutch, 1617-168146 artworks
Abraham BosschaertDutch, 1612-16434 artworks
Ambrosius Bosschaert the ElderDutch, 1573-162116 artworks
Ambrosius Bosschaert the YoungerDutch, 1609-16455 artworks
Johannes BosschaertDutch, 1606-16294 artworks
Jan BothDutch, 1618-165234 artworks
Leonaert Bramer1596-167424 artworks
Salomon de BrayDutch, 1597-16649 artworks
Elias van den BroeckBelgian, 1649-17087 artworks
Johannes van BronckhorstDutch, 1648-172712 artworks
Abraham van CalraetDutch, 1642-172231 artworks
Jan van de CappelleDutch, 1626-167929 artworks
Pieter ClaeszDutch, 1597-166012 artworks
Edwart CollierDutch, 1640-171018 artworks
Laurens CraenDutch, 1620-16702 artworks
Pieter van der CroosDutch, 1609-16772 artworks
Abraham van CuylenborchDutch, 1610-16584 artworks
Aelbert CuypDutch, 1620-169167 artworks
Cornelis Gerritsz. DeckerDutch, 1623-167811 artworks
Dirck van DelenDutch, 1604-167122 artworks
Floris van DijckDutch, 1575-16515 artworks
Gerrit DouDutch, 1613-167537 artworks
Hendrick Jacobsz. DubbelsDutch, 1621-170711 artworks
Karel DujardinDutch, 1626-167848 artworks
Caesar van EverdingenDutch, 1617-167823 artworks
Carel FabritiusDutch, 1622-165414 artworks
Jean-Baptiste FornenburghDutch, 1585-16498 artworks
Jan Josefz van GoyenDutch, 1596-165644 artworks
Johannes van HaensbergenDutch, 1642-17059 artworks
Dirck HalsDutch, 1591-165625 artworks
Frans HalsDutch, 1582-1666149 artworks
Jan HalsDutch, 1620-16543 artworks
Willem Claesz HedaDutch, 1594-167028 artworks
Cornelis de HeemDutch, 1631-16954 artworks
Jan Davidsz. de HeemDutch, 1606-168452 artworks
Bartolomeus van der HelstDutch, 1613-167022 artworks
Herman HenstenburghDutch, 1667-17267 artworks
Jan van der HeydenDutch, 1637-171265 artworks
Meindert HobbemaDutch, 1638-170933 artworks
Melchior de HondecoetterDutch, 1636-169533 artworks
Pieter de HoochDutch, 1629-168466 artworks
Samuel Van HoogstratenDutch, 1627-16789 artworks
Jan van HuchtenburghDutch, 1647-17337 artworks
Willem KalfDutch, 1610-169310 artworks
Cornelis KickDutch, 1634-16816 artworks
Simon KickDutch, 1603-16528 artworks
Philips de KoninckDutch, 1619-168820 artworks
Philip van KouwenberghDutch, 1671-17293 artworks
Judith LeysterDutch, 1609-166016 artworks
Jan LievensDutch, 1607-167468 artworks
Johannes LingelbachDutch, 1622-167433 artworks
Isaack LuttichuysDutch, 1616-16732 artworks
Nicolaes MaesDutch, 1634-169348 artworks
Cornelis de ManDutch, 1621-170612 artworks
Gabriel MetsuDutch, 1629-166767 artworks
Abraham MignonDutch, 1640-167917 artworks
Jan MijtensDutch, 1614-167028 artworks
Paulus MoreelseDutch, 1571-163853 artworks
Jan MortelDutch, 1652-17194 artworks
Frederick de MoucheronDutch, 1633-168611 artworks
Michiel van MusscherDutch, 1645-17054 artworks
Aert van der NeerDutch, 1603-167735 artworks
Caspar NetscherDutch, 1639-168458 artworks
Jan OlisDutch, 1610-167610 artworks
Maria van OosterwijckDutch, 1630-16936 artworks
Adriaen van OstadeDutch, 1610-168563 artworks
Isaac van OstadeDutch, 1621-164932 artworks
Anthonie PalamedeszDutch, 1601-16732 artworks
Nicolaes Eliaszoon PickenoyDutch, 1588-165010 artworks
Carel van der PluymDutch, 1625-16722 artworks
Egbert van der PoelDutch, 1621-166420 artworks
Cornelius van PoelenburghDutch, 1594-166761 artworks
Frans PostDutch, 1612-168011 artworks
Paulus PotterDutch, 1625-165442 artworks
Pieter QuastDutch, 1605-16473 artworks
Jan Anthonisz van RavesteynDutch, 1570-16578 artworks
George Ogilvy ReidEnglish, 1851-19281 artwork
Rembrandt van RijnDutch, 1606-1669579 artworks
Pieter de RingDutch, 1615-16603 artworks
Jan Albertsz RotiusDutch, 1624-16667 artworks
Jacob van RuisdaelDutch, 1628-168287 artworks
Salomon van RuisdaelDutch, 1602-167010 artworks
Salomon van RuysdaelDutch, 1600-167034 artworks
Peter SaenredamDutch, 1597-166515 artworks
Roelant SaveryDutch, 1576-163914 artworks
Godfried SchalckenDutch, 1643-170674 artworks
Floris van SchootenDutch, 1590-165513 artworks
Otto van SchrieckDutch, 1613-167813 artworks
Jan SteenDutch, 1625-1679104 artworks
Ernst StuvenGerman, 1657-17125 artworks
Wallerant VaillantDutch, 1623-16776 artworks
Anthonie van BorssumDutch, 1630-16772 artworks
Adriaen van de VeldeDutch, 1636-167223 artworks
Willem van der Velde the ElderDutch, 1611-16937 artworks
Willem van de Velde the YoungerDutch, 1633-1707162 artworks
Adriaen van de VenneDutch, 1580-166217 artworks
Johannes VermeerDutch, 1632-167537 artworks
Jan Vermeer van UtrechtDutch, 1630-16961 artwork
Simon de VliegerDutch, 1601-165342 artworks
Hendrick Cornelisz van VlietDutch, 1611-167529 artworks
Daniel VosmaerDutch, 1622-16696 artworks
Nicolaes de VreeDutch, 1645-17022 artworks
Jacobus VrelDutch, 1617-168116 artworks
Abraham de VriesDutch, 1590-16556 artworks
Jacob van WalscapelleDutch, 1644-17277 artworks
Jan WeenixDutch, 1640-171928 artworks
Adriaen van der WerffDutch, 1659-172217 artworks
Jacob Willemsz. de WetDutch, 1610-167112 artworks
Jan WijnantsDutch, 1632-168447 artworks
Adam WillaertsDutch, 1577-16442 artworks
Matthias WithoosDutch, 1627-17035 artworks
Emanuel de WitteDutch, 1617-169241 artworks
Philips WouwermanDutch, 1619-1668120 artworks
Pieter WouwermanDutch, 1623-16828 artworks
Die Brücke
Dates: 1905-1912
First German expressionist group. Its members were influenced by primitive arts and painted with strong brush strokes and unmixed colours, like the Fauvists - their French counterparts.
 Artists
Erich HeckelGerman, 1883-197052 artworks
Ernst Ludwig KirchnerGerman, 1880-1938230 artworks
Otto MuellerGerman, 1874-193017 artworks
Emil NoldeGerman, 1867-1956975 artworks
Hermann Max PechsteinGerman, 1881-1955166 artworks
Karl Schmidt-RottluffGerman, 1884-197632 artworks
Expressionism
Dates: 1905-1935
European art movement which consisted on many small and short-living groups. Each one painted with unconventional colours and distorted perspectives in order to "express" personal emotions.
 Artists
Alexandr ArchipenkoUkrainian, 1887-19648 artworks
Alice BaillySwiss, 1872-1938121 artworks
Giacomo BallaItalian, 1871-195845 artworks
Albert BlochGerman, 1882-19616 artworks
Umberto BoccioniItalian, 1882-191626 artworks
Georges BraqueFrench, 1882-1963317 artworks
David Davidovich BurliukRussian, 1882-196726 artworks
Charles CamoinFrench, 1879-1965145 artworks
Heinrich CampendonkGerman, 1889-195719 artworks
Carlo CarràItalian, 1881-19669 artworks
Marc ChagallFrench, 1887-198527 artworks
Robert DelaunayFrench, 1885-194144 artworks
Fortunato DeperoItalian, 1892-19601 artwork
André DerainFrench, 1880-1954258 artworks
Otto DixGerman, 1891-196949 artworks
Raoul DufyFrench, 1877-1953841 artworks
Henri-Jacques EvenepoelBelgian, 1872-18998 artworks
Lyonel FeiningerAmerican, 1871-195692 artworks
Roger de la FresnayeFrench, 1885-192581 artworks
Emile-Othon FrieszFrench, 1879-1949258 artworks
Albert GleizesFrench, 1881-195374 artworks
Natalia GoncharovaRussian, 1881-196291 artworks
Juan GrisSpanish, 1887-1927215 artworks
Erich HeckelGerman, 1883-197052 artworks
Alexei JawlenskyRussian, 1864-1941652 artworks
Wassily KandinskyRussian, 1866-1944229 artworks
Ernst Ludwig KirchnerGerman, 1880-1938230 artworks
Paul KleeSwiss, 1879-1940153 artworks
Mikhail Fedorovich LarionovRussian, 1881-196416 artworks
Marie LaurencinFrench, 1883-1956268 artworks
Henri LaurensFrench, 1885-19547 artworks
Henri Le FauconnierFrench, 1881-19464 artworks
Fernand LégerFrench, 1881-1955417 artworks
Wyndham Lewis1882-19571 artwork
André LhoteFrench, 1885-1962293 artworks
August MackeGerman, 1887-191488 artworks
Henri ManguinFrench, 1874-1949156 artworks
Franz MarcGerman, 1880-1916339 artworks
Louis MarcoussisPolish, 1883-194148 artworks
Albert MarquetFrench, 1875-1947378 artworks
Henri MatisseFrench, 1869-1954734 artworks
Jean MetzingerFrench, 1883-1956132 artworks
Otto MuellerGerman, 1874-193017 artworks
Edvard MunchNorwegian, 1863-19441669 artworks
Gabrielle MünterGerman, 1878-195586 artworks
Emil NoldeGerman, 1867-1956975 artworks
Hermann Max PechsteinGerman, 1881-1955166 artworks
Pablo PicassoSpanish, 1881-1973124 artworks
Liubov PopovaRussian, 1889-19244 artworks
Jean PuyFrench, 1876-196018 artworks
Alfred RethHungarian, 1884-196614 artworks
Georges RouaultFrench, 1871-1958354 artworks
Luigi RussoloItalian, 1883-19474 artworks
Egon SchieleAustrian, 1890-1918328 artworks
Karl Schmidt-RottluffGerman, 1884-197632 artworks
Gino SeveriniItalian, 1883-196623 artworks
Mario SironiItalian, 1885-19618 artworks
Ardengo SofficiItalian, 1879-19641 artwork
Chaim SoutineFrench, 1894-1943526 artworks
Howard TangyeAustralian36 artworks
Maurice de VlaminckFrench, 1876-1958773 artworks
Edward Wadsworth1889-194953 artworks
Marianne von WerefkinRussian, 1860-19388 artworks
Symbolism
Dates: 1870-1910
 Artists
Arnold BöcklinSwiss, 1827-190115 artworks
Mikalojus CiurlionisLithuanian, 1875-19116 artworks
Jean DelvilleBelgian, 1867-19534 artworks
John McKirdy DuncanScottish, 1866-194543 artworks
Fernand KhnopffBelgian, 1858-192122 artworks
Gustav KlimtAustrian, 1862-1918149 artworks
Gustave MoreauFrench, 1826-1898116 artworks
Edvard MunchNorwegian, 1863-19441669 artworks
Gaetano PreviatiItalian, 1852-19205 artworks
Pierre Puvis de ChavannesFrench, 1824-189882 artworks
Odilon RedonFrench, 1840-1916553 artworks
Félicien RopsBelgian, 1833-18983 artworks
Carlos SchwabeGerman, 1866-192629 artworks
Jan TooropDutch, 1858-192812 artworks
Elihu VedderAmerican, 1836-192355 artworks
Ashcan school
Dates: 1908-1920
American art movement of the early 20th century, known for portraying daily life of the urban lower classes, especially in New York City.
 Artists
Gifford BealAmerican, 1879-195628 artworks
George Wesley BellowsAmerican, 1882-1925232 artworks
William James GlackensAmerican, 1870-1938255 artworks
Robert HenriAmerican, 1865-1925318 artworks
George Benjamin LuksAmerican, 1867-1933108 artworks
Jerome MyersAmerican, 1867-194010 artworks
Everett ShinnAmerican, 1876-195382 artworks
John SloanAmerican, 1871-1951134 artworks
Realism
Dates: 1830-1880
Western artists who aimed to depict Nature without artifice or allegory, mostly by painting landscapes and common people at work.
 Artists
Gustave CourbetFrench, 1819-1877222 artworks
Honore DaumierFrench, 1808-187939 artworks
Pop Art
Dates: 1955-1975
Anglo-Saxon movement which used advertising and comics imageries or daily life objects to turn them into artworks.
 Artists
Andy WarholAmerican, 1928-198712 artworks
Veduta
Dates: 1720-1770
Italian artists who specialized in painting panoramas of Rome, Venice and landscapes with ruins, which they sold to English gentlemen as souvenirs of their Grand Tour.
 Artists
Bernardo BellottoItalian, 1721-178064 artworks
CanalettoItalian, 1697-1768148 artworks
Luca CarlevarisItalian, 1665-17317 artworks
Jacopo FabrisItalian, 1689-17611 artwork
Francesco GuardiItalian, 1712-179358 artworks
Antonio JoliItalian, 1700-177734 artworks
Hendrik Frans van LintBelgian, 1684-176317 artworks
Michele Giovanni MarieschiItalian, 1710-174312 artworks
Giovanni Paolo PaniniItalian, 1691-1765129 artworks
Hubert RobertFrench, 1733-180828 artworks
Howard TangyeAustralian36 artworks
French School 18th Century - UnknownFrench, 1700-18003 artworks
Claude-Joseph VernetFrench, 1714-178955 artworks
Pierre VolaireFrench, 1729-179910 artworks
Northern Renaissance
Dates: 1500-1590
Art movement which occurred mainly in Germany and the Low Countries when the Renaissance style spread outside Italy and mixed with Late Gothic and Early Netherlandish styles.
 Artists
Pieter AertsenDutch, 1508-157524 artworks
Albrecht AltdorferGerman, 1480-153816 artworks
Hans Baldung GrienGerman, 1485-154591 artworks
Ambrosius BensonBelgian, 1484-155042 artworks
John Bettes the ElderEnglish, 1531-15703 artworks
Joachim BeuckelaerBelgian, 1534-157431 artworks
Jörg Breu the ElderGerman, 1475-15374 artworks
Pieter Bruegel the ElderBelgian, 1525-1569192 artworks
Joos van CleveDutch, 1485-154049 artworks
Lucas Cranach the ElderGerman, 1472-1553124 artworks
Herri Met de BlesBelgian, 1510-15601 artwork
Albrecht DürerGerman, 1471-1528434 artworks
Hans EworthDutch, 1520-15786 artworks
Frans FlorisBelgian, 1520-15706 artworks
Jan Gossaert (Called Mabuse)Belgian, 1478-153219 artworks
Matthias GrunewaldGerman, 1470-152818 artworks
Hans Holbein the YoungerGerman, 1497-1543151 artworks
Adriaen IsenbrandtBelgian, 1485-155111 artworks
Jan MandijnDutch, 1500-15603 artworks
Cornelis MassysBelgian, 1510-15563 artworks
Jan MostaertDutch, 1472-15551 artwork
Pieter PourbusBelgian, 1523-15841 artwork
Isaac Claesz van SwanenburgDutch, 1537-16244 artworks
Jan Sanders Van HemessenBelgian, 1500-156610 artworks
Dada
Dates: 1916-1924
 Artists
Jean ArpSwiss, 1886-196618 artworks
Jean CrottiFrench, 1878-19581 artwork
Marcel DuchampFrench, 1887-19682 artworks
Max ErnstGerman, 1891-19767 artworks
Early Netherlandish
Dates: 1400-1530
 Artists
Hieronymus BoschDutch, 1450-151613 artworks
Dierec BoutsDutch, 1415-147523 artworks
Robert CampinDutch, 1378-144434 artworks
Petrus ChristusDutch, 1410-147525 artworks
Jacques DaretBelgian, 1404-14703 artworks
Gheeraert (Gerard) DavidBelgian, 1460-152322 artworks
Masolino di CristoforoItalian, 1383-14479 artworks
Bartelemy d'EyckBelgian, 1444-14701 artwork
Jan van EyckBelgian, 1393-144127 artworks
Hugo van der GoesBelgian, 1440-14826 artworks
Jean HeyDutch, 1475-150516 artworks
Josse LieferinxeBelgian, 1493-15087 artworks
Jan MassysBelgian, 1510-157511 artworks
Master of the Virgo inter VirginesDutch, 1460-150014 artworks
Quinten MatsysDutch, 1466-1530
Hans MemlingDutch, 1435-149475 artworks
Quentin MetsysBelgian, 1466-153047 artworks
Geerten tot Sint JansDutch, 1465-14952 artworks
Rogier van der WeydenBelgian, 1399-146424 artworks
Bauhaus
Dates: 1919-1932
A school of architecture, design and art founded in Germany in 1919. Bauhaus is characterized by severely economic, geometric design and by respect for materials.
 Artists
Lyonel FeiningerAmerican, 1871-195692 artworks
Wassily KandinskyRussian, 1866-1944229 artworks
Paul KleeSwiss, 1879-1940153 artworks
El LissitzkyRussian, 1890-19413 artworks
Oskar SchlemmerGerman, 1888-19433 artworks
Fauvism
Dates: 1904-1912
French artists who painted with wild brush work and colours, hence their name. Can be considered as the French branch of early Expressionism.
 Artists
Alice BaillySwiss, 1872-1938121 artworks
Georges BraqueFrench, 1882-1963317 artworks
Charles CamoinFrench, 1879-1965145 artworks
André DerainFrench, 1880-1954258 artworks
Raoul DufyFrench, 1877-1953841 artworks
Henri-Jacques EvenepoelBelgian, 1872-18998 artworks
Emile-Othon FrieszFrench, 1879-1949258 artworks
Henri ManguinFrench, 1874-1949156 artworks
Albert MarquetFrench, 1875-1947378 artworks
Henri MatisseFrench, 1869-1954734 artworks
Jean MetzingerFrench, 1883-1956132 artworks
Jean PuyFrench, 1876-196018 artworks
Georges RouaultFrench, 1871-1958354 artworks
Louis ValtatFrench, 1869-1952490 artworks
Kees Van DongenDutch, 1877-1968440 artworks
Maurice de VlaminckFrench, 1876-1958773 artworks
High Renaissance
Dates: 1500-1530
Golden age of Italian painting, with great masters such as Da Vinci, Michelangelo or Raphael, who set the rules of painting for centuries.
 Artists
Fra BartolommeoItalian, 1472-151717 artworks
Giovanni Antonio BoltraffioItalian, 1467-151619 artworks
Michelangelo BuonarrotiItalian, 1475-1564161 artworks
Giovanni CarianiItalian, 1485-154720 artworks
CorreggioItalian, 1489-153459 artworks
Lucas Cranach the ElderGerman, 1472-1553124 artworks
Battista DossiItalian, 1490-15484 artworks
Giorgio da CastelfrancoItalian, 1477-151018 artworks
Hans Holbein the YoungerGerman, 1497-1543151 artworks
Leonardo da VinciItalian, 1452-151938 artworks
Lorenzo LottoItalian, 1480-155726 artworks
Moretto da BresciaItalian, 1498-155429 artworks
Sebastiano del PiomboItalian, 1485-154714 artworks
RaphaelItalian, 1483-1520193 artworks
Andrea del SartoItalian, 1486-153011 artworks
Giovanni Gerolamo SavoldoItalian, 1480-15488 artworks
Luca SignorelliItalian, 1445-152324 artworks
TitianItalian, 1485-1576230 artworks
Palma VecchioItalian, 1480-15285 artworks
Bartolomeo VenetoItalian, 1480-154635 artworks
Caravaggisti
Dates: 1590-1640
First stage of Baroque, with many artists all over Europe who closely followed Caravaggio's style of strong Chiaroscuro.
 Artists
Dirck van BaburenDutch, 1595-16247 artworks
Giovanni BaglioneItalian, 1566-164316 artworks
Jan van BijlertDutch, 1597-167111 artworks
Valentin de BoulogneFrench, 1591-16327 artworks
Giovanni Battista CaraccioloItalian, 1578-16354 artworks
CaravaggioItalian, 1571-161070 artworks
Bartolomeo CavarozziItalian, 1590-16258 artworks
Georges de la TourFrench, 1593-165232 artworks
Cecco del CaravaggioItalian, 1610-16258 artworks
Domenico FettiItalian, 1589-162327 artworks
Artemisia GentileschiItalian, 1593-165231 artworks
Orazio GentileschiItalian, 1563-163928 artworks
Gerard van HonthorstDutch, 1592-165682 artworks
Bartolomeo ManfrediItalian, 1582-162214 artworks
Nicolas RégnierBelgian, 1591-166720 artworks
Jusepe de RiberaSpanish, 1591-165256 artworks
Carlo SaraceniItalian, 1579-162012 artworks
Gerard SeghersBelgian, 1591-165114 artworks
Leonello SpadaItalian, 1576-16222 artworks
Massimo StanzioneItalian, 1586-16568 artworks
Matthias StomDutch, 1600-165017 artworks
Hendrick TerbrugghenDutch, 1588-162948 artworks
Nicolas TournierFrench, 1590-163912 artworks
Simon VouetFrench, 1590-164960 artworks
Francisco de ZurbaranSpanish, 1598-166473 artworks
Abstraction-Création
Dates: 1931-1936
Abstract art group based in Paris. Its members wanted to revive abstract art which had declined in the late 1920's, challenged by Surrealism.
 Artists
Auguste HerbinFrench, 1882-1960157 artworks
Alfred RethHungarian, 1884-196614 artworks
Kurt SchwittersGerman, 1887-194842 artworks
Suprematism
Dates: 1913-1927
First abstract group, founded around Malevitch. Its members painted monochrome geometric forms, usually in black, white, or primary colours.
 Artists
Ilya ChashnikRussian, 1902-19294 artworks
Ivan KliunRussian, 1873-19434 artworks
Kasimir MalevichRussian, 1878-193533 artworks
Liubov PopovaRussian, 1889-19244 artworks
Olga RozanovaRussian, 1886-19182 artworks
Nikolai SuetinRussian, 1897-19542 artworks
Baroque
Dates: 1590-1720
Baroque is actually a general category which includes several distinct schools of the 17th century. As for the Renaissance, the movement started in Italy, but the Spanish and Dutch Netherlands took the lead between 1620-1680, then France from 1650 onwards.
 Artists
Benito Manuel AgueroSpanish, 1624-16684 artworks
José AntolinezSpanish, 1635-167514 artworks
Juan de ArellanoSpanish, 1614-167627 artworks
Gioacchino AsseretoItalian, 1600-164914 artworks
Dirck van BaburenDutch, 1595-16247 artworks
Giovanni BaglioneItalian, 1566-164316 artworks
Antonio BalestraItalian, 1666-174021 artworks
Paolo Antonio BarbieriItalian, 1603-16494 artworks
Evaristo BaschenisItalian, 1617-167711 artworks
Lubin BauginFrench, 1612-16638 artworks
Osias BeertBelgian, 1580-162315 artworks
Giovanni BeinaschiItalian, 1636-16881 artwork
Antonio de BellisItalian, 1616-16562 artworks
Jan van BijlertDutch, 1597-167111 artworks
Giovanni BilivertiItalian, 1585-16442 artworks
Pieter BoelBelgian, 1626-16745 artworks
Bon BoullogneFrench, 1649-171717 artworks
Louis Boullogne the ElderFrench, 1609-16744 artworks
Madeleine BoullogneFrench, 1646-17104 artworks
Louis de Boullogne the YoungerFrench, 1654-173343 artworks
Valentin de BoulogneFrench, 1591-16327 artworks
Jan Brueghel the YoungerBelgian, 1601-16789 artworks
Juan Martín CabezaleroSpanish, 1633-16736 artworks
Francesco CairoItalian, 1607-16677 artworks
Pedro de CamprobinSpanish, 1605-167414 artworks
Alonso CanoSpanish, 1601-166730 artworks
Giovanni Battista CaraccioloItalian, 1578-16354 artworks
CaravaggioItalian, 1571-161070 artworks
Annibale CarracciItalian, 1560-160958 artworks
Valerio CastelloItalian, 1624-165913 artworks
Bernardo CavallinoItalian, 1616-165612 artworks
Bartolomeo CavarozziItalian, 1590-16258 artworks
Mateo CerezoSpanish, 1637-16662 artworks
Philippe de ChampaigneFrench, 1602-167424 artworks
Nicolas ColombelFrench, 1644-171720 artworks
Jan CossiersBelgian, 1600-16714 artworks
Juan Sànchez CotànSpanish, 1560-16278 artworks
Antoine Coypel IIFrench, 1661-172278 artworks
Noël Coypel IFrench, 1628-170753 artworks
Antoine CoysevoxFrench, 1640-172028 artworks
Jean DaretBelgian, 1614-166811 artworks
Virgina da VezzoItalian, 1601-16382 artworks
Georges de la TourFrench, 1593-165232 artworks
Cecco del CaravaggioItalian, 1610-16258 artworks
Juan Carreno de MirandaSpanish, 1614-168511 artworks
Carlo DolciItalian, 1616-16868 artworks
DomenichinoItalian, 1581-164124 artworks
Domenico Maria VianiItalian, 1668-17113 artworks
Michel DorignyFrench, 1617-16631 artwork
Anthony van DyckBelgian, 1599-1641181 artworks
Domenico FettiItalian, 1589-162327 artworks
Frans Francken the YoungerBelgian, 1581-164227 artworks
Francesco FuriniItalian, 1603-16469 artworks
Artemisia GentileschiItalian, 1593-165231 artworks
Orazio GentileschiItalian, 1563-163928 artworks
Luca GiordanoItalian, 1634-170599 artworks
Giovanni Francesco BarbieriItalian, 1591-166621 artworks
Willem van HaechtBelgian, 1593-16375 artworks
Juan van der HamenSpanish, 1596-163123 artworks
Willem van Herp the ElderBelgian, 1614-167713 artworks
Gerard van HonthorstDutch, 1592-165682 artworks
René-Antoine HouasseFrench, 1645-171039 artworks
Jacob van HulsdonckBelgian, 1582-16478 artworks
Jan Baptist HuysmansBelgian, 1654-17165 artworks
Jacob JordaensBelgian, 1593-167856 artworks
Laurent de La HyreFrench, 1606-165684 artworks
Christoffel Jacobsz. van der LamenBelgian, 1606-16513 artworks
Giovanni LangettiItalian, 1625-167611 artworks
Nicolas de LargillièreFrench, 1656-174676 artworks
Charles Le BrunFrench, 1619-1690
Pierre Ledart IIIFrench, 1628-16981 artwork
Jean LemaireFrench, 1597-165921 artworks
Eustache Le SueurFrench, 1617-1655113 artworks
Johann LissGerman, 1595-163115 artworks
Carstian LuyckxBelgian, 1623-167510 artworks
Dirk MaasDutch, 1659-1717
Juan Bautista MaínoSpanish, 1581-164920 artworks
Master of the AcquavellaItalian, 1600-16504 artworks
Henri MauperchéFrench, 1602-168616 artworks
Bernardino MeiItalian, 1612-16765 artworks
Pierre MignardFrench, 1612-169570 artworks
Cristoforo MunariItalian, 1667-17203 artworks
Bartolomé Esteban MurilloSpanish, 1617-168257 artworks
Josefa de Ayala y ObidosSpanish, 1630-168414 artworks
Jacob van Oost the ElderBelgian, 1603-167121 artworks
Francisco de PalaciosSpanish, 1623-16521 artwork
Pietro PaoliniItalian, 1603-16818 artworks
Pierre Patel the ElderFrench, 1605-16761 artwork
Clara PeetersBelgian, 1594-165712 artworks
Antonio De PeredaSpanish, 1611-167814 artworks
Giovan Battista ReccoItalian, 1615-16602 artworks
Giuseppe ReccoItalian, 1634-16958 artworks
Nicolas RégnierBelgian, 1591-166720 artworks
Guido ReniItalian, 1575-164241 artworks
Jusepe de RiberaSpanish, 1591-165256 artworks
Sebastiano RicciItalian, 1659-173489 artworks
Salvator RosaItalian, 1615-16739 artworks
Peter Paul RubensBelgian, 1577-1640445 artworks
Antonio del Castillo y SaavedraSpanish, 1616-16686 artworks
Carlo SaraceniItalian, 1579-162012 artworks
Bartolomeo SchedoniItalian, 1578-161513 artworks
Gerard SeghersBelgian, 1591-165114 artworks
Jan SiberechtsBelgian, 1627-170318 artworks
Frans SnydersBelgian, 1579-165752 artworks
Isaak SoreauGerman, 1604-16443 artworks
Leonello SpadaItalian, 1576-16222 artworks
Massimo StanzioneItalian, 1586-16568 artworks
Matthias StomDutch, 1600-165017 artworks
Bernardo StrozziItalian, 1581-164411 artworks
David Teniers the YoungerBelgian, 1610-1690221 artworks
Hendrick TerbrugghenDutch, 1588-162948 artworks
Nicolas TournierFrench, 1590-163912 artworks
French School 18th Century - UnknownFrench, 1700-18003 artworks
Andrea VaccaroItalian, 1604-16704 artworks
Juan de Valdés LealSpanish, 1622-169017 artworks
Ottavio VanniniItalian, 1585-16431 artwork
Gillis van TilborghBelgian, 1625-16789 artworks
Diego VelazquezSpanish, 1599-1660123 artworks
Jacopo VignaliItalian, 1592-16641 artwork
Lucas Vorsterman1595-16751 artwork
Cornelis de VosBelgian, 1584-165117 artworks
Simon VouetFrench, 1590-164960 artworks
Sebastian VrancxBelgian, 1573-164715 artworks
Tomàs YepesSpanish, 1595-167425 artworks
Francisco de ZurbaranSpanish, 1598-166473 artworks
Classicism
Dates: 1635-1700
French movement which aimed to counter the eccentricity of Baroque by painting ordered and refined scenes. It was highly patronized by Louis XIV who liked ordered artworks, like in the Palace of Versailles.
 Artists
Lubin BauginFrench, 1612-16638 artworks
Bon BoullogneFrench, 1649-171717 artworks
Louis de Boullogne the YoungerFrench, 1654-173343 artworks
Philippe de ChampaigneFrench, 1602-167424 artworks
Claude Lorrain (Gellée)French, 1600-1682128 artworks
Nicolas ColombelFrench, 1644-171720 artworks
Antoine Coypel IIFrench, 1661-172278 artworks
Noël Coypel IFrench, 1628-170753 artworks
Antoine CoysevoxFrench, 1640-172028 artworks
Michel DorignyFrench, 1617-16631 artwork
René-Antoine HouasseFrench, 1645-171039 artworks
Laurent de La HyreFrench, 1606-165684 artworks
Pierre Ledart IIIFrench, 1628-16981 artwork
Jean LemaireFrench, 1597-165921 artworks
Eustache Le SueurFrench, 1617-1655113 artworks
Henri MauperchéFrench, 1602-168616 artworks
Pierre MignardFrench, 1612-169570 artworks
Pierre Patel the ElderFrench, 1605-16761 artwork
Nicolas PoussinFrench, 1594-1665164 artworks
Hyacinthe RigaudFrench, 1659-174383 artworks
Pointilism
Dates: 1885-1910
French artists who used discoveries from optical science to paint with "points" of primary colours, without mixing them. From a distant view, the eye cannot see the dots and blends itself the colours, and so the patterns of the painting appear. This breakthrough led to modern painting.
 Artists
Charles AngrandFrench, 1854-192616 artworks
Henri Edmond CrossFrench, 1856-1910147 artworks
Maximilien LuceFrench, 1858-1941384 artworks
Henri MartinFrench, 1860-1943515 artworks
Hippolyte PetitjeanFrench, 1854-192932 artworks
Georges SeuratFrench, 1859-1891131 artworks
Paul SignacFrench, 1863-1935328 artworks
Theo van RysselbergheBelgian, 1862-1926312 artworks
Abstract art
Dates: 1914-1960
Art movement issued from Expressionism which aimed to totally abandoned figurative art in favour of abstraction. So their compositions often represent colourful geometric shapes.
 Artists
William BaziotesAmerican, 1912-19631 artwork
Ilya ChashnikRussian, 1902-19294 artworks
Robert DelaunayFrench, 1885-194144 artworks
Burgoyne DillerAmerican, 1906-19652 artworks
Theo van DoesburgDutch, 1883-19313 artworks
Arshile GorkyAmerican, 1904-1948130 artworks
Auguste HerbinFrench, 1882-1960157 artworks
Hans HofmannGerman, 1880-19662 artworks
Vilmos HuszárHungarian, 1884-19601 artwork
Mainie JellettIrish, 1897-19441 artwork
Wassily KandinskyRussian, 1866-1944229 artworks
Franz KlineAmerican, 1910-19623 artworks
Ivan KliunRussian, 1873-19434 artworks
Frantisec KupkaCzech, 1871-1957116 artworks
Kasimir MalevichRussian, 1878-193533 artworks
László Moholy-NagyHungarian, 1895-194614 artworks
Piet MondrianDutch, 1872-194448 artworks
Jackson PollockAmerican, 1912-19565 artworks
Liubov PopovaRussian, 1889-19244 artworks
Alfred RethHungarian, 1884-196614 artworks
Mark RothkoLithuanian, 1903-19704 artworks
Olga RozanovaRussian, 1886-19182 artworks
Kurt SchwittersGerman, 1887-194842 artworks
Nikolai SuetinRussian, 1897-19542 artworks
Sophie Taeuber-ArpSwiss, 1889-19433 artworks
Leon Arthur TutundjianArmenian, 1905-19681 artwork
Surrealism
Dates: 1924-1970
European literature and visual arts movement. Its members created compositions where elements were painted in a realistic way, with accurate brush strokes, but put together in improbable or grotesque poses in order to represent dreams.
 Artists
Victor BraunerRomanian, 1903-196678 artworks
André BretonFrench, 1896-19661 artwork
Salvador DaliSpanish, 1904-198928 artworks
Giorgio de ChiricoGreek, 1888-197814 artworks
Paul DelvauxBelgian, 1897-19949 artworks
Oscar DominguezSpanish, 1906-195839 artworks
Marcel DuchampFrench, 1887-19682 artworks
Max ErnstGerman, 1891-19767 artworks
Rene MagritteBelgian, 1898-1967296 artworks
Andre MassonFrench, 1896-198720 artworks
Joan MiróSpanish, 1893-198312 artworks
Wolfgang PaalenAustrian, 1905-19595 artworks
Man RayAmerican, 1890-19764 artworks
Kay SageAmerican, 1898-19631 artwork
Jindřich ŠtyrskýCzech, 1899-19422 artworks
Yves TanguyFrench, 1900-195547 artworks
Dorothea TanningGerman, 1910-20121 artwork
Futurism
Dates: 1909-1918
Italian movement, which also spread to Russia. Both groups tried to urge the modernisation of their archaic country by glorifying technology, speed, machinery and even violence. These ideas led some futurists to support Fascism.
 Artists
Giacomo BallaItalian, 1871-195845 artworks
Umberto BoccioniItalian, 1882-191626 artworks
David Davidovich BurliukRussian, 1882-196726 artworks
Carlo CarràItalian, 1881-19669 artworks
Fortunato DeperoItalian, 1892-19601 artwork
Natalia GoncharovaRussian, 1881-196291 artworks
Mikhail Fedorovich LarionovRussian, 1881-196416 artworks
Liubov PopovaRussian, 1889-19244 artworks
Luigi RussoloItalian, 1883-19474 artworks
Gino SeveriniItalian, 1883-196623 artworks
Mario SironiItalian, 1885-19618 artworks
Ardengo SofficiItalian, 1879-19641 artwork
Mannerism
Dates: 1520-1600
The last stage of Renaissance. Artists painted complex works, with distorted characters in uncomfortable poses.
 Artists
Hans von AachenGerman, 1552-161642 artworks
Niccolo dell' AbateItalian, 1509-157114 artworks
Alessandro AlloriItalian, 1535-160722 artworks
Lucia AnguissolaItalian, 1538-15656 artworks
Sofonisba AnguissolaItalian, 1532-162523 artworks
Giuseppe ArcimboldoItalian, 1527-159327 artworks
Il BacchiaccaItalian, 1494-155721 artworks
Francesco Bassano the YoungerItalian, 1549-159227 artworks
Gerolamo BassanoItalian, 1566-16211 artwork
Jacopo BassanoItalian, 1510-159251 artworks
Leandro BassanoItalian, 1557-162215 artworks
Giovanni Francesco BezziItalian, 1510-15714 artworks
Agnolo BronzinoItalian, 1503-157296 artworks
Vincenzo CampiItalian, 1536-159110 artworks
Polidoro da CaravaggioItalian, 1497-15436 artworks
Jacopo PontormoItalian, 1494-155722 artworks
El GrecoGreek, 1541-1614187 artworks
Lavinia FontanaItalian, 1552-16148 artworks
Palma GiovaneItalian, 1544-16289 artworks
Hendrick GoltziusDutch, 1558-161712 artworks
Girolamo MacchiettiItalian, 1535-15924 artworks
Giovanni Battista MoroniItalian, 1523-157848 artworks
Lelio OrsiItalian, 1511-15877 artworks
ParmigianinoItalian, 1503-154020 artworks
Bartolomeo PassarottiItalian, 1529-15926 artworks
Marco PinoItalian, 1521-15837 artworks
Carlo Portelli da LoroItalian, 1510-15741 artwork
Scipione PulzoneItalian, 1542-15987 artworks
Rosso FiorentinoItalian, 1494-15402 artworks
Tintoretto, JacopoItalian, 1518-159482 artworks
Michele TosiniItalian, 1503-15775 artworks
Perino del VagaItalian, 1501-15743 artworks
Paolo VeroneseItalian, 1528-158874 artworks
Daniele da VolterraItalian, 1509-15663 artworks
Skagen Painters
Dates: 1878-1910
Scandinavian painters who met in the coastal village of Skagen, on the top of Denmark. They followed the French impressionists and painted "en plein air" many bright landscapes and genre scenes, especially fishermen.
 Artists
Anna AncherSwedish, 1859-193556 artworks
Michael-Peter AncherDanish, 1849-19277 artworks
Christian KrohgDanish, 1852-192513 artworks
Johan KrouthénSwedish, 1858-1932472 artworks
Marie Triepcke KroyerDanish, 1867-19401 artwork
Peder Severin KroyerNorwegian, 1851-190983 artworks
Eilif PeterssenNorwegian, 1852-19285 artworks
Fritz ThaulowNorwegian, 1847-190662 artworks
Laurits TuxenDanish, 1853-19272 artworks
Old Lyme Colony
Dates: 1900-1915
American impressionist artists, who met in Old Lyme (Connecticut) around Childe Hassam.
 Artists
Gifford BealAmerican, 1879-195628 artworks
Emil CarlsenDanish, 1853-193296 artworks
Frederick Childe HassamAmerican, 1859-1935617 artworks
Willard Leroy MetcalfAmerican, 1858-1925182 artworks
Henry Ward RangerAmerican, 1858-191610 artworks
Theodore RobinsonAmerican, 1852-1896176 artworks
John TwachtmanAmerican, 1853-1902266 artworks
Julian Alden WeirAmerican, 1852-1919122 artworks
De Stijl
Dates: 1917-1931
Dutch abstract art movement (also influential in Architecture) which focused on linear and cubic forms.
 Artists
Burgoyne DillerAmerican, 1906-19652 artworks
Theo van DoesburgDutch, 1883-19313 artworks
Vilmos HuszárHungarian, 1884-19601 artwork
Piet MondrianDutch, 1872-194448 artworks
Art Nouveau
Dates: 1890-1910
 Artists
Paul Emile BerthonFrench, 1872-19092 artworks
Jules ChéretFrench, 1836-19327 artworks
Georges de FeureFrench, 1868-19289 artworks
Eugène GrassetSwiss, 1845-19171 artwork
Gustav KlimtAustrian, 1862-1918149 artworks
Margaret MacDonald1865-19331 artwork
Koloman MoserAustrian, 1869-191814 artworks
Alfons Maria MuchaCzech, 1860-193919 artworks
Alexandre de RiquerSpanish, 1856-19206 artworks
Jan TooropDutch, 1858-192812 artworks
Henri de Toulouse-LautrecFrench, 1864-1901279 artworks
Abstract Expressionism
Dates: 1940-1960
Golden age for abstract artists who had settled in the USA because of the war and where they enjoyed great success. Their works were often large and complex pieces which they painted spontaneously, without preparation.
 Artists
William BaziotesAmerican, 1912-19631 artwork
Arshile GorkyAmerican, 1904-1948130 artworks
Hans HofmannGerman, 1880-19662 artworks
Franz KlineAmerican, 1910-19623 artworks
Jackson PollockAmerican, 1912-19565 artworks
Mark RothkoLithuanian, 1903-19704 artworks
Impressionism
Dates: 1863-1890
French artists who painted in 'plein-air', with bright and unmixed colours and slightly apparent brush strokes, in order to give a better rendering of light. They suffered many restrictions from the Fine Arts Academy for these innovations.
 Artists
John Ottis AdamsAmerican, 1851-192735 artworks
Anna AncherSwedish, 1859-193556 artworks
Michael-Peter AncherDanish, 1849-19277 artworks
Lucy BaconAmerican, 1858-19321 artwork
Laureano BarrauSpanish, 1863-195726 artworks
Jean Frederic BazilleFrench, 1841-187047 artworks
Reynolds BealAmerican, 1867-195129 artworks
Frank W. BensonAmerican, 1862-1951123 artworks
Eugène-Louis BoudinFrench, 1824-18981043 artworks
Olga BoznańskaPolish, 1865-1940147 artworks
Matilda BrowneAmerican, 1869-19472 artworks
John Elwood BundyAmerican, 1853-19335 artworks
Dennis Miller BunkerAmerican, 1861-189025 artworks
Theodore Earl ButlerAmerican, 1861-193645 artworks
Gustave CaillebotteFrench, 1848-1894236 artworks
Ignacio Pinazo CamarlenchSpanish, 1849-1916176 artworks
Mary CassattAmerican, 1844-1926316 artworks
William Merritt ChaseAmerican, 1849-1916617 artworks
Alson Skinner ClarkAmerican, 1876-1949117 artworks
Colin Campbell CooperAmerican, 1856-193794 artworks
Paul CornoyerAmerican, 1864-192332 artworks
Edgar DegasFrench, 1834-1917622 artworks
Giuseppe de NittisItalian, 1846-188467 artworks
Frank Vincent DuMondAmerican, 1865-19513 artworks
John Joseph EnnekingAmerican, 1841-191649 artworks
Karoly FerenczyHungarian, 1862-19172 artworks
Frederick C. FriesekeAmerican, 1874-1939192 artworks
Daniel GarberAmerican, 1880-195843 artworks
Edmund W. GreacenAmerican, 1876-194915 artworks
Richard B. GruelleAmerican, 1851-19142 artworks
Armand GuillauminFrench, 1841-1927426 artworks
Frederick Childe HassamAmerican, 1859-1935617 artworks
Blanche Hoschedé-MonetFrench, 1865-194720 artworks
Charles Salis KaelinAmerican, 1858-19295 artworks
Joseph KleitschAmerican, 1882-1931162 artworks
Alexander KoesterGerman, 1864-193229 artworks
Christian KrohgDanish, 1852-192513 artworks
Johan KrouthénSwedish, 1858-1932472 artworks
Marie Triepcke KroyerDanish, 1867-19401 artwork
Peder Severin KroyerNorwegian, 1851-190983 artworks
William Langson LathropAmerican, 1859-193845 artworks
Stanislas LépineFrench, 1835-189287 artworks
Richard Haley LeverAustralian, 1876-195848 artworks
Max LiebermannGerman, 1847-1935202 artworks
Edouard ManetFrench, 1832-1883238 artworks
Willard Leroy MetcalfAmerican, 1858-1925182 artworks
Claude Oscar MonetFrench, 1840-19261223 artworks
Adolphe-Joseph-Thomas MonticelliFrench, 1824-188639 artworks
Berthe MorisotFrench, 1841-1895292 artworks
George NoyesAmerican, 1864-19545 artworks
Frank NuderscherAmerican, 1880-19591 artwork
Leonard OchtmanAmerican, 1854-19356 artworks
Mina Fonda OchtmanAmerican, 1862-19241 artwork
Julian OnderdonkAmerican, 1882-1922178 artworks
Walter Frederick OsborneIrish, 1859-190332 artworks
William MacGregor PaxtonAmerican, 1869-194186 artworks
Lilla Cabot PerryAmerican, 1848-193379 artworks
Eilif PeterssenNorwegian, 1852-19285 artworks
Theodor PhilipsenDanish, 1840-19202 artworks
Camille PissarroFrench, 1830-19031011 artworks
Edward PotthastAmerican, 1857-1927273 artworks
Leo PutzGerman, 1869-194080 artworks
Henry Ward RangerAmerican, 1858-191610 artworks
Edward Willis RedfieldAmerican, 1869-196579 artworks
Robert Lewis ReidAmerican, 1862-192962 artworks
Pierre Auguste RenoirFrench, 1841-19191541 artworks
Theodore RobinsonAmerican, 1852-1896176 artworks
Guy Orlando RoseAmerican, 1867-1925133 artworks
Paul SawyierAmerican, 1865-191712 artworks
Valentin SerovRussian, 1865-1911115 artworks
Edward E. SimmonsAmerican, 1852-193113 artworks
Alfred SisleyFrench, 1839-1899545 artworks
Joaquin Sorolla y BastidaSpanish, 1863-1923573 artworks
George W. SotterAmerican, 1878-19537 artworks
Otto StarkAmerican, 1859-19268 artworks
Theodore Clement SteeleAmerican, 1847-192690 artworks
Jane SutherlandAustralian, 1853-192813 artworks
Edmund TarbellAmerican, 1862-193899 artworks
Fritz ThaulowNorwegian, 1847-190662 artworks
Laurits TuxenDanish, 1853-19272 artworks
John TwachtmanAmerican, 1853-1902266 artworks
Lesser UryGerman, 1861-1931127 artworks
Robert VonnohAmerican, 1858-193350 artworks
Elmer WachtelAmerican, 1864-192917 artworks
Marion Kavanaugh (Wachtel)American, 1875-19548 artworks
Julian Alden WeirAmerican, 1852-1919122 artworks
James Abbott McNeill WhistlerAmerican, 1834-1903220 artworks
Federico ZandomeneghiItalian, 1841-191796 artworks
Pre-Raphaelites
Dates: 1848-1910
English painters who shared the goal of the German Nazarenes to create an art deprived from the Greco-Roman classicism which was - according to them - prevalent since Raphael, hence their name. So they used themes taken from British history, such as King Arthur legends and Shakespeare's plays, which they illustrated with vibrant colours and melancholy.
 Artists
John Edward Brett, A.R.A.English, 1830-190233 artworks
Ford Madox BrownEnglish, 1821-189323 artworks
Sir Edward Burne-JonesEnglish, 1833-1898125 artworks
John Maler CollierEnglish, 1850-1934173 artworks
James CollinsonEnglish, 1825-18818 artworks
Evelyn de MorganEnglish, 1855-191951 artworks
Walter DeverellEnglish, 1827-18541 artwork
John Rogers HerbertEnglish, 1810-18901 artwork
William Holman HuntEnglish, 1827-191032 artworks
Edmund Blair LeightonEnglish, 1853-192249 artworks
Sir Frederick Lord LeightonEnglish, 1830-189687 artworks
Sir John Everett MillaisEnglish, 1829-1896137 artworks
William MorrisEnglish, 1834-18963 artworks
Dante Gabriel RossettiEnglish, 1828-1882210 artworks
Anthony Frederick SandysEnglish, 1829-1904112 artworks
Elizabeth SiddalEnglish, 1829-18623 artworks
John Roddam Spencer-StanhopeEnglish, 1829-190815 artworks
Frederic George StephensEnglish, 1838-19075 artworks
Annie SwynnertonEnglish, 1844-19337 artworks
John William WaterhouseEnglish, 1849-191789 artworks
Renaissance
Dates: 1440-1590
Period of fundamental discoveries in arts and science which shaped the modern western world. In painting, artists wanted to depict realistic proportions and colours by taking their inspiration from classical antiquity.
 Artists
Pieter AertsenDutch, 1508-157524 artworks
Alessandro AlloriItalian, 1535-160722 artworks
Albrecht AltdorferGerman, 1480-153816 artworks
Fra AngelicoItalian, 1387-145579 artworks
Lucia AnguissolaItalian, 1538-15656 artworks
Jacopo di AntonioItalian, 1427-14544 artworks
Il BacchiaccaItalian, 1494-155721 artworks
Alesso BaldovinettiItalian, 1425-14997 artworks
Hans Baldung GrienGerman, 1485-154591 artworks
Jacopo BarbariItalian, 1445-151635 artworks
Fra BartolommeoItalian, 1472-151717 artworks
Francesco Bassano the YoungerItalian, 1549-159227 artworks
Gerolamo BassanoItalian, 1566-16211 artwork
Jacopo BassanoItalian, 1510-159251 artworks
Leandro BassanoItalian, 1557-162215 artworks
Gentile BelliniItalian, 1429-150727 artworks
Giovanni BelliniItalian, 1430-1516162 artworks
Jacopo BelliniItalian, 1400-147033 artworks
Ambrogio BergognoneItalian, 1453-15234 artworks
Pedro BerrugueteSpanish, 1450-150419 artworks
John Bettes the ElderEnglish, 1531-15703 artworks
Joachim BeuckelaerBelgian, 1534-157431 artworks
Giovanni Francesco BezziItalian, 1510-15714 artworks
Boccaccio BoccaccinoItalian, 1467-15251 artwork
Giovanni Antonio BoltraffioItalian, 1467-151619 artworks
Benedetto BonfigliItalian, 1420-14963 artworks
Paris BordoneItalian, 1500-157148 artworks
Sandro BotticelliItalian, 1445-1510133 artworks
Frencesco BotticiniItalian, 1446-14975 artworks
Donato BramanteItalian, 1444-15141 artwork
BramantinoItalian, 1456-15309 artworks
Jörg Breu the ElderGerman, 1475-15374 artworks
Michelangelo BuonarrotiItalian, 1475-1564161 artworks
Vincenzo CampiItalian, 1536-159110 artworks
Polidoro da CaravaggioItalian, 1497-15436 artworks
Giovanni CarianiItalian, 1485-154720 artworks
Jacopo PontormoItalian, 1494-155722 artworks
Joos van CleveDutch, 1485-154049 artworks
Franҫois ClouetFrench, 1515-157215 artworks
CorreggioItalian, 1489-153459 artworks
Piero di CosimoItalian, 1462-152214 artworks
Lorenzo Costa the ElderItalian, 1460-153522 artworks
Lucas Cranach the ElderGerman, 1472-1553124 artworks
Carlo CrivelliItalian, 1435-149520 artworks
Taddeo CrivelliItalian, 1425-14791 artwork
Cima da ConeglianoItalian, 1459-151721 artworks
Antonello da MessinaItalian, 1430-14796 artworks
Herri Met de BlesBelgian, 1510-15601 artwork
Andrea del CastagnoItalian, 1421-14575 artworks
Neri di BicciItalian, 1419-14916 artworks
Lorenzo di CrediItalian, 1459-15376 artworks
Masolino di CristoforoItalian, 1383-14479 artworks
Matteo di Giovanni di BartoloItalian, 1430-149511 artworks
Giovanni di PaoloItalian, 1398-148228 artworks
Battista DossiItalian, 1490-15484 artworks
Dosso DossiItalian, 1490-154237 artworks
Hans EworthDutch, 1520-15786 artworks
Frans FlorisBelgian, 1520-15706 artworks
Lavinia FontanaItalian, 1552-16148 artworks
Vincenzo FoppaItalian, 1430-151516 artworks
Piero della FrancescaItalian, 1422-149210 artworks
Domenico GhirlandaioItalian, 1449-149491 artworks
Francesco di Giorgio MartiniItalian, 1439-15025 artworks
Giorgio da CastelfrancoItalian, 1477-151018 artworks
Palma GiovaneItalian, 1544-16289 artworks
Matteo di GiovanniItalian, 1430-14954 artworks
Jan Gossaert (Called Mabuse)Belgian, 1478-153219 artworks
Benozzo GozzoliItalian, 1421-14977 artworks
Matthias GrunewaldGerman, 1470-152818 artworks
Hans Holbein the YoungerGerman, 1497-1543151 artworks
Adriaen IsenbrandtBelgian, 1485-155111 artworks
Leonardo da VinciItalian, 1452-151938 artworks
Filippino LippiItalian, 1457-150482 artworks
Fra Filippo LippiItalian, 1406-146967 artworks
Lorenzo LottoItalian, 1480-155726 artworks
Girolamo MacchiettiItalian, 1535-15924 artworks
Zanobi MachiavelliItalian, 1418-14793 artworks
Jan MandijnDutch, 1500-15603 artworks
Andrea MantegnaItalian, 1431-1506102 artworks
MasaccioItalian, 1401-142820 artworks
Cornelis MassysBelgian, 1510-15563 artworks
Ambrosi MelozzoItalian, 1438-149412 artworks
Domenico di MichelinoItalian, 1417-14911 artwork
Moretto da BresciaItalian, 1498-155429 artworks
Antonio MoroDutch, 1520-157810 artworks
Giovanni Battista MoroniItalian, 1523-157848 artworks
Jan MostaertDutch, 1472-15551 artwork
ParmigianinoItalian, 1503-154020 artworks
Bartolomeo PassarottiItalian, 1529-15926 artworks
Pietro PeruginoItalian, 1445-152392 artworks
Marco PinoItalian, 1521-15837 artworks
PinturicchioItalian, 1454-15135 artworks
Sebastiano del PiomboItalian, 1485-154714 artworks
Antonio del PollaiuoloItalian, 1433-14989 artworks
Piero PollaiuoloItalian, 1441-149611 artworks
Pieter PourbusBelgian, 1523-15841 artwork
Giovanni Ambrogio de PredisItalian, 1455-150813 artworks
Scipione PulzoneItalian, 1542-15987 artworks
RaphaelItalian, 1483-1520193 artworks
Ercole de' RobertiItalian, 1451-149618 artworks
Girolamo RomaniItalian, 1485-15662 artworks
Antoniazzo RomanoItalian, 1430-15108 artworks
Giulio RomanoItalian, 1499-15468 artworks
Rosso FiorentinoItalian, 1494-15402 artworks
Andrea del SartoItalian, 1486-153011 artworks
Giovanni Gerolamo SavoldoItalian, 1480-15488 artworks
Luca SignorelliItalian, 1445-152324 artworks
Isaac Claesz van SwanenburgDutch, 1537-16244 artworks
Tintoretto, JacopoItalian, 1518-159482 artworks
TitianItalian, 1485-1576230 artworks
Michele TosiniItalian, 1503-15775 artworks
Cosmè TuraItalian, 1430-149520 artworks
Paolo UccelloItalian, 1397-147511 artworks
Perino del VagaItalian, 1501-15743 artworks
Jan Sanders Van HemessenBelgian, 1500-156610 artworks
Palma VecchioItalian, 1480-15285 artworks
Bartolomeo VenetoItalian, 1480-154635 artworks
Domenico VenezianoItalian, 1410-14619 artworks
Paolo VeroneseItalian, 1528-158874 artworks
Antonio VivariniItalian, 1410-14807 artworks
Daniele da VolterraItalian, 1509-15663 artworks
Marco ZoppoItalian, 1433-14788 artworks
Academism
Dates: 1850-1910
Artists sponsored by the State who focused on historical and mythological themes, with many nude allegories, or idealized genre scenes in order to represent the perfect beauty in art. The style was a sort of synthesis of the previous official art movements, especially Romanticism and Neoclassicism.
 Artists
Louis-Emile AdanFrench, 1839-19373 artworks
Alfred Pierre AgacheFrench, 1843-19152 artworks
Sir Lawrence Alma-TademaDutch, 1836-1912170 artworks
Abbey Altson1866-194932 artworks
Eugène-Emmanuel Amaury-DuvalFrench, 1808-18852 artworks
Stefan BakalowiczPolish, 1857-19473 artworks
Paul BaudryFrench, 1828-18861 artwork
Leon BenouvilleFrench, 1821-18594 artworks
Léon Joseph Florentin BonnatFrench, 1833-192253 artworks
Pierre-Louis BouchardFrench, 1831-18891 artwork
Elizabeth Jane Gardner BouguereauAmerican, 1837-19227 artworks
William BouguereauFrench, 1825-1905427 artworks
Charles Edouard BoutibonneFrench, 1816-18977 artworks
Alexandre CabanelFrench, 1823-188963 artworks
Joseph CaraudFrench, 1821-19059 artworks
Emile Carolus-DuranFrench, 1838-191729 artworks
Paul Emile ChabasFrench, 1869-19377 artworks
Charles ChaplinFrench, 1825-189137 artworks
Georges Jules Victor ClairinFrench, 1843-191916 artworks
Louis-Joseph-Raphael CollinFrench, 1850-19168 artworks
Charles West CopeEnglish, 1811-18909 artworks
Pierre-Auguste CotFrench, 1837-18835 artworks
Gustave CourtoisFrench, 1852-19232 artworks
Thomas CoutureFrench, 1815-18798 artworks
Władysław CzachórskiPolish, 1850-191127 artworks
Henri-Camille DangerFrench, 1857-19376 artworks
Edouard-Joseph DantanFrench, 1848-18972 artworks
Eugene de BlaasAustrian, 1843-1932143 artworks
Henri DelabordeFrench, 1811-18992 artworks
Jules-Élie DelaunayFrench, 1828-18911 artwork
Francois Alfred DelobbeFrench, 1835-19205 artworks
Cesare Augusto DettiItalian, 1847-191432 artworks
Gustave DoyenFrench, 1837-?6 artworks
Herbert James DraperEnglish, 1864-192049 artworks
Delphin EnjolrasFrench, 1857-1945180 artworks
Rudolf ErnstAustrian, 1854-193235 artworks
Luis FaleroSpanish, 1851-189622 artworks
Benjamin Eugene FichelFrench, 1826-18954 artworks
Albert Auguste FourieFrench, 1854-19373 artworks
Theodore GerardBelgian, 1829-189534 artworks
Jean-Léon GérômeFrench, 1824-1904220 artworks
Henri GervexFrench, 1852-192914 artworks
Victor Gabriel GilbertFrench, 1847-1933109 artworks
Jules GirardetFrench, 1856-193816 artworks
Henry Gillard Glindoni1852-191313 artworks
John William GodwardEnglish, 1861-1922257 artworks
Jean-Jacques HennerFrench, 1829-19054 artworks
Gustave Jean JacquetFrench, 1846-190933 artworks
Paul JaminFrench, 1853-19032 artworks
Adolphe la LyreFrench, 1850-19355 artworks
Charles Zacherie LandelleFrench, 1812-190810 artworks
Jean-Jules-Antoine Lecomte du NouÿFrench, 1842-192314 artworks
Jules Joseph LefebvreFrench, 1836-191147 artworks
Edmund Blair LeightonEnglish, 1853-192249 artworks
Alexander Louis LeloirFrench, 1843-18847 artworks
Jules Eugène LenepveuFrench, 1819-18981 artwork
Charles-Amable LenoirFrench, 1861-19409 artworks
Henri Léopold LévyFrench, 1840-19044 artworks
John Arthur Lomax1857-192315 artworks
Hugues MerleFrench, 1823-188114 artworks
Albert Joseph Moore, A.R.W.S.English, 1841-189355 artworks
Frederick MorganEnglish, 1847-192731 artworks
Henri-Paul MotteFrench, 1846-19222 artworks
Ernest Normand1857-192313 artworks
Sir William Quiller OrchardsonEnglish, 1832-191088 artworks
Antonio PaolettiItalian, 1833-19126 artworks
Leon-Jean-Basile PerraultFrench, 1832-190814 artworks
Henri-Félix-Emmanuel PhilippoteauxFrench, 1818-18843 artworks
Henri Pierre PicouFrench, 1824-189513 artworks
Sir Edward John PoynterEnglish, 1836-191967 artworks
Henrietta Rae-NormandEnglish, 1859-19286 artworks
Theodoros RalliGreek, 1852-190935 artworks
Henri RegnaultFrench, 1843-18714 artworks
Pio RicciItalian, 1850-191929 artworks
Alexander Mark Rossi1840-191641 artworks
Lionel-Noël RoyerFrench, 1852-19261 artwork
Jules ScalbertFrench, 1851-19288 artworks
Henri-Guillaume SchlesingerFrench, 1814-18936 artworks
Guillaume SeignacFrench, 1870-192461 artworks
Paul SieffertFrench, 1874-19577 artworks
Hendryk SiemiradzkiPolish, 1843-190272 artworks
Solomon Joseph SolomonEnglish, 1860-19274 artworks
Charles Joseph Frederick SoulacroixFrench, 1825-187949 artworks
Nikolai SverchkovRussian, 1817-189811 artworks
Henri Adrien TanouxFrench, 1865-192318 artworks
Eugène Romain ThirionFrench, 1839-19192 artworks
Auguste ToulmoucheFrench, 1829-189042 artworks
Emile VernonFrench, 1872-191952 artworks
Jehan-Georges VibertFrench, 1840-190243 artworks
Sándor von WagnerHungarian, 1838-19191 artwork
Jean-Joseph WeertsFrench, 1847-19271 artwork
Charles WildaAustrian, 1854-19071 artwork
William Clarke WontnerEnglish, 1857-19307 artworks
Eduardo Zamacois y ZabalaSpanish, 1841-18712 artworks
Fritz Zuber-BuhlerSwiss, 1822-189653 artworks
Nazarene
Dates: 1809-1850

German Romantic painters settled in Rome who regarded the art since 1500 as degenerate and pagan. They favoured instead works produced during the Early Renaissance; so their paintings looks deliberately old-fashioned, with a focus on Christian and German subjects.

 Artists
Peter von CorneliusGerman, 1783-18677 artworks
Marie EllenriederGerman, 1791-186316 artworks
Joseph von FührichCzech, 1800-18764 artworks
Franz IttenbachGerman, 1813-18799 artworks
Johann Friedrich OverbeckGerman, 1789-186913 artworks
Franz PforrGerman, 1788-18125 artworks
Julius Schnorr von CarolsfeldGerman, 1794-187222 artworks
Ludwig Schnorr von CarolsfeldGerman, 1788-18531 artwork
Philipp VeitGerman, 1793-18778 artworks
Post-Impressionism
Dates: 1885-1914
Art movement from the 1880s to the First World War which extended and exaggerated the themes of Impressionism.
 Artists
Charles AngrandFrench, 1854-192616 artworks
Robert BevanEnglish, 1865-192581 artworks
Pierre BonnardFrench, 1867-1947634 artworks
Paul CezanneFrench, 1839-1906561 artworks
Henri Edmond CrossFrench, 1856-1910147 artworks
Malcolm DrummondEnglish, 1880-194529 artworks
Paul GauguinFrench, 1848-1903551 artworks
Harold GilmanEnglish, 1876-191961 artworks
Charles Ginner1878-195283 artworks
Spencer Gore1878-191482 artworks
James Dickson Innes1887-191439 artworks
Henry LambEnglish, 1883-19603 artworks
Henri LebasqueFrench, 1865-1937591 artworks
Gustave LoiseauFrench, 1865-1935540 artworks
Maximilien LuceFrench, 1858-1941384 artworks
Aristide MaillolFrench, 1861-194472 artworks
James Bolivar Manson1879-194540 artworks
Hippolyte PetitjeanFrench, 1854-192932 artworks
Camille PissarroFrench, 1830-19031011 artworks
Lucien PissarroFrench, 1863-194413 artworks
Maurice PrendergastCanadian, 1858-1924412 artworks
William RatcliffeEnglish, 1882-196329 artworks
Henri RousseauFrench, 1855-1910111 artworks
Georges SeuratFrench, 1859-1891131 artworks
Walter Richard SickertGerman, 1860-1942233 artworks
Paul SignacFrench, 1863-1935328 artworks
Vincent van GoghDutch, 1853-1890641 artworks
Theo van RysselbergheBelgian, 1862-1926312 artworks
Jan VerkadeDutch, 1868-19462 artworks
Edouard VuillardFrench, 1868-1940632 artworks
Romanticism
Dates: 1800-1850
Western nationalist, melancholic and passionate movement which aimed to break classical rules. In America, England and Germany, artists focused on the struggle between nature and civilisation, whereas in France they mostly depicted useless heroism - outstanding people vanquished by supernatural forces.
 Artists
Richard Parkes BoningtonEnglish, 1801-182887 artworks
Karl Pavlovich BrulloffRussian, 1799-1852122 artworks
Léopold BurtheFrench, 1823-18602 artworks
Carl Gustav CarusGerman, 1789-18695 artworks
Théodore ChassériauFrench, 1819-185660 artworks
Léon CognietFrench, 1794-18805 artworks
Thomas ColeEnglish, 1801-1848127 artworks
John ConstableEnglish, 1776-1837220 artworks
Peter von CorneliusGerman, 1783-18677 artworks
Johan Christian (J.C.C.) DahlNorwegian, 1788-185796 artworks
Eugène DelacroixFrench, 1798-1863173 artworks
William DyceScottish, 1806-186464 artworks
Marie EllenriederGerman, 1791-186316 artworks
Caspar David FriedrichGerman, 1774-184068 artworks
Joseph von FührichCzech, 1800-18764 artworks
Thèodore GèricaultFrench, 1791-182481 artworks
Francisco Jose de Goya y LucientesSpanish, 1746-1828205 artworks
Francesco Paolo HayezItalian, 1791-188179 artworks
Theodor von Holst1810-18442 artworks
Franz IttenbachGerman, 1813-18799 artworks
Louis JanmotFrench, 1814-189224 artworks
Orest KiprenskyRussian, 1778-18361 artwork
Christen KøbkeDanish, 1810-184833 artworks
Joseph KochAustrian, 1768-18397 artworks
Sir Thomas Lawrence, P.R.A.English, 1769-183081 artworks
Carl Friedrich LessingGerman, 1808-188011 artworks
John MartinEnglish, 1789-185434 artworks
Johann Friedrich OverbeckGerman, 1789-186913 artworks
Ernest Fritz PetzholdtDanish, 1805-18386 artworks
Franz PforrGerman, 1788-18125 artworks
Alfred RethelGerman, 1816-18596 artworks
Francois Fleury RichardFrench, 1777-18523 artworks
Philipp Otto RungeGerman, 1777-18105 artworks
Ary SchefferFrench, 1795-185816 artworks
Julius Schnorr von CarolsfeldGerman, 1794-187222 artworks
Ludwig Schnorr von CarolsfeldGerman, 1788-18531 artwork
Karl Ferdinand SohnGerman, 1805-18675 artworks
Carl SpitzwegGerman, 1808-188534 artworks
Baron Charles SteubenFrench, 1788-18563 artworks
Hermann Anton StilkeGerman, 1803-18603 artworks
Adolph TidemandNorwegian, 1814-18766 artworks
Joseph Mallord William TurnerEnglish, 1775-1851796 artworks
Philipp VeitGerman, 1793-18778 artworks
Horace VernetFrench, 1789-186364 artworks
Baron Egide Charles Gustave WappersBelgian, 1803-18742 artworks
Antoine WiertzBelgian, 1806-18655 artworks
Neoclassicism
Dates: 1760-1820

European art movement mostly dominated by France which aimed to reproduce the Antique style.


 Artists
Jacques-Antoine BeaufortFrench, 1721-17849 artworks
Marie-Guillemine BenoistFrench, 1768-18268 artworks
Pietro BenvenutiItalian, 1769-18447 artworks
Jean-Simon BerthélemyFrench, 1743-181126 artworks
Jean BrocFrench, 1771-18502 artworks
Antoine-Francois CalletFrench, 1741-182310 artworks
Gianbettino CignaroliItalian, 1706-177020 artworks
Jacques-Louis DavidFrench, 1748-1825141 artworks
Jean-Germain DrouaisFrench, 1763-17886 artworks
Antoine DubostFrench, 1769-18252 artworks
Rose-Adelaide DucreuxFrench, 1761-18023 artworks
Paul DuqueylardFrench, 1771-18452 artworks
François-Xavier FabreFrench, 1766-183745 artworks
Jean-Pierre FranqueFrench, 1774-18601 artwork
Étienne-Barthélémy GarnierFrench, 1759-18495 artworks
Louis GauffierFrench, 1762-180115 artworks
François GérardFrench, 1770-183736 artworks
Anne-Louis Girodet de Roussy-TriosonFrench, 1767-1824133 artworks
Antoine-Jean GrosFrench, 1771-18357 artworks
Pierre-Narcisse GuerinFrench, 1774-18338 artworks
Alexandre Charles GuillemotFrench, 1786-18312 artworks
Guillaume Guillon-LethiereFrench, 1760-18329 artworks
Jean-Auguste-Dominique IngresFrench, 1780-186799 artworks
Angelica KauffmannSwiss, 1741-1807138 artworks
Jean-Jacques LagrenéeFrench, 1739-182128 artworks
Louis Jean François LagrenéeFrench, 1724-180589 artworks
Robert LefevreFrench, 1755-183057 artworks
Marie-Victoire LemoineFrench, 1754-182016 artworks
Anton Raphael MengsGerman, 1728-177930 artworks
Léonor MériméeFrench, 1757-18361 artwork
Charles MeynierFrench, 1768-183210 artworks
Pierre PeyronFrench, 1744-18146 artworks
Francois-Edouard PicotFrench, 1786-18682 artworks
Pierre-Paul Prud'honFrench, 1758-182312 artworks
Pierre-Maurice QuaysFrench, 1779-1803
Jean-Baptiste RegnaultFrench, 1754-182923 artworks
Henri-François RiesenerFrench, 1767-18283 artworks
Joseph-Benoit SuvéeBelgian, 1743-180717 artworks
Johann Friedrich August TischbeinGerman, 1750-18122 artworks
François Topino-LebrunFrench, 1764-18014 artworks
French School 18th Century - UnknownFrench, 1700-18003 artworks
Jacques-Antoine VallinFrench, 1760-183135 artworks
John VanderlynAmerican, 1775-18526 artworks
Joseph Marie VienFrench, 1716-180943 artworks
Francois-Andre VincentFrench, 1746-181612 artworks
Benjamin WestAmerican, 1738-182076 artworks
Johann ZoffanyGerman, 1733-18106 artworks
Rococo
Dates: 1710-1780

The Rococo style dominated the arts, architecture and design during the reign of Louis XV of France (1715-1774); it started in France and Italy, then expanded to most of Europe.

1. Watteau and his fêtes galantes (1710-1730)

Commonly accepted as the creator of the movement, Jean-Antoine Watteau designed a new kind of genre scene, named fêtes galantes, which represented young couples dancing or making music in parks, with a coy eroticism. Watteau immediately gained success among the nobility, especially after the death of King Louis XIV, who had imposed a devout morality in the Court at the end of his reign. By now, freed from the watchful eye of the King, the aristocrats - led by the Regent - looked for happiness and pleasure, as depicted by Watteau. For the first time in modern history, art was made only to please, whereas previous movements were charged with a Christian morality of repentance or austerity. This new paradigm flourished under Rococo, which was the expression of the libertine spirit in painting.

Watteau and his main followers Pater and Lancret represented the first stage of the style, which lasted until the 1730s.

2. Boucher and the golden age of Rococo (1730-1760)

The golden age of Rococo started with the maturity of the artists born in the 1700s, such as Carle Van Loo, Natoire, and Boucher, the most famous painter of the style. The sketched eroticism of Watteau now became apparent. Indeed, following the path of Lemoyne and Jean Raoux, their subjects taken from the Greco-Roman mythology were principally a pretext to show depictions of passionate love (with the subject of Venus and Adonis) or nudity (with countless representations of Venus and Artemis), which they highlighted with bright and warm colours, and a luxurious vegetation made of flowers and grapes.

Apart from their mythological scenes, which were included under the title of "history" painting, they made numerous pastorales - genre scenes of lovers in the countryside - and humoristic compositions with fat and naughty putti (little cupids). These artworks served as decorative panels, especially as dessus-de-porte (above the door), in royal or noble palaces.

In France, these artists were largely patronized by Madame de Pompadour, the official mistress of Louis XV, who bought many pieces to embellish the palaces of Versailles and Marly (destroyed by Napoleon). They also looked abroad to sell their artworks, notably to Frederick II of Prussia and Augustus III of Saxony, who battled to get their best paintings.

On the other hand, Spanish monarchs preferred to call Italian painters directly to their Court, due to the lack of good painters in the country at the time. Thus, Giaquinto and Tiepolo both crossed the sea to work in Madrid, where they produced numerous frescos and large canvas for Spanish palaces. However, Italian Rococo was more a continuation of Baroque - with some innovations - than a break from the Baroque style as pronounced as in France, since its members remained mostly focused on biblical subjects and painted with less exuberance than their French counterparts.

Lesser patrons essentially commissioned their own portraits, as prices had reduced thanks to the diffusion of pastel, which also shortened the time of production. Since the triumphal journey made in France by the Venetian Rosalba Carreira in 1720, the prevalent type in portraiture was to idealize the sitter, or to represent him in the guise of divinities or allegories. Her most famous followers were Quentin de la Tour and Perronneau. Oil portrait painters also followed in her steps; the most successful in France being Nattier, who painted all the French aristocracy under the traits of allegorical characters.

3. Fragonard (1760-1780)

Finally, the last stage of Rococo (1760-1780) was dominated by Fragonard and his followers Lafrensen and Schall, who painted with an easy brush stroke which gave to their works an unfinished aspect. They were smaller in size in order to be easier to engrave and exhibit in private cabinets. Indeed, many of these works were too explicit to be shown to the public, although engravers widely spread their reproductions. Incidentally, Fragonard remained outside of the French Academy and Salon.

The Rococo style came to an end in the 1780s due to its frivolousness and it appeared as a symbol of the aristocratic decadence and corruption. The rising bourgeoisie favoured instead the severe neoclassical style embodied by David, which triumphed with the French Revolution. Besides, the pejorative term of "Rococo" is said to have been coined by Quays, who was perhaps the most resolute proponent of Neoclassicism.

Nevertheless, even at its climax, the movement was never completely dominant, since several painters - lead by Chardin and Oudry - pursued the Dutch realist tradition. However, the movement did not have much influence on English painters, with the possible exception of some of Hogarth's output.

 Artists
Jacopo AmigoniItalian, 1682-175256 artworks
Antonio BalestraItalian, 1666-174021 artworks
Pierre Antoine BaudouinFrench, 1723-17699 artworks
Francois BoucherFrench, 1703-1770287 artworks
Rosalba CarrieraItalian, 1675-1757105 artworks
Pierre-Jacques CazesFrench, 1676-17549 artworks
Charles-Michel-Ange ChalleFrench, 1718-177812 artworks
Jacques CourtinFrench, 1672-17523 artworks
Charles-Antoine Coypel IVFrench, 1694-1752126 artworks
Noël-Nicolas Coypel IIIFrench, 1690-173424 artworks
Donato CretiItalian, 1671-17493 artworks
Maurice Quentin de La TourFrench, 1704-17886 artworks
Jean-Baptiste Deshays de CollevilleFrench, 1729-176516 artworks
Gaspare DizianiItalian, 1689-176744 artworks
François-Hubert DrouaisFrench, 1727-177561 artworks
Jean-Honore FragonardFrench, 1732-1806151 artworks
Corrado GiaquintoItalian, 1703-1766110 artworks
Francisco Jose de Goya y LucientesSpanish, 1746-1828205 artworks
Jean-Baptiste GreuzeFrench, 1725-1805140 artworks
Noel HalléFrench, 1711-178116 artworks
William HogarthEnglish, 1697-176464 artworks
Niklas LafrensenSwedish, 1737-18072 artworks
Nicolas LancretFrench, 1690-174330 artworks
Sébastien-Jacques LeclercFrench, 1734-17858 artworks
Pierre-Charles Le MettayFrench, 1726-17593 artworks
Franҫois LemoyneFrench, 1688-173715 artworks
Jean-Étienne LiotardSwiss, 1702-1789106 artworks
Auger LucasFrench, 1685-17652 artworks
Franz Anton MaulbertschAustrian, 1724-17967 artworks
Philipe MercierGerman, 1689-176065 artworks
Martin van MeytensSwedish, 1695-17706 artworks
Charles-Joseph NatoireFrench, 1700-177721 artworks
Jean-Marc NattierFrench, 1685-176690 artworks
Jean-Baptiste PaterFrench, 1695-173642 artworks
Giovanni Antonio PellegriniItalian, 1675-17419 artworks
Jean-Baptiste PerronneauFrench, 1715-178329 artworks
Antoine PesneFrench, 1683-175717 artworks
Jean-Baptiste Marie PierreFrench, 1714-178920 artworks
Pierre-Antoine QuillardFrench, 1700-17336 artworks
Jean RancFrench, 1674-17352 artworks
Jean RaouxFrench, 1677-173447 artworks
Alexander RoslinSwedish, 1718-179311 artworks
Jean-Frédéric SchallFrench, 1752-182569 artworks
Pierre SubleyrasFrench, 1699-174915 artworks
Jean Thierry the YoungerFrench, 1669-17392 artworks
Giandomenico TiepoloItalian, 1727-18043 artworks
Giovanni Battista TiepoloItalian, 1696-1770106 artworks
Gaspare TraversiItalian, 1722-17703 artworks
Pierre Charles TrémolièresFrench, 1703-17394 artworks
Louis de TrinquesseFrench, 1746-18006 artworks
Jean-Franсois de TroyFrench, 1679-175231 artworks
French School 18th Century - UnknownFrench, 1700-18003 artworks
Carle Van LooFrench, 1705-176533 artworks
Charles-Amédée-Philippe Van LooFrench, 1719-17957 artworks
Nicolas VleughelsFrench, 1688-173716 artworks
Jean-Antoine WatteauFrench, 1684-172191 artworks