Art Movements
Art movements, schools, and styles

There are many ways to classify the history of art by time period, stylistic features, or geography. Currently The Athenaeum calls all such groupings "art movements". Pick a movement from the menu at left to see the artists associated with the movement.

Der Blaue Reiter
Dates: 1910-1914
German art group from Munich, which also comprised Russian immigrants.
 Artists
Albert BlochGerman, 1882-19619 artworks
David Davidovich BurliukRussian, 1882-196793 artworks
Heinrich CampendonkGerman, 1889-195726 artworks
Lyonel FeiningerAmerican, 1871-1956234 artworks
Natalia GoncharovaRussian, 1881-1962126 artworks
Alexei JawlenskyRussian, 1864-1941681 artworks
Wassily KandinskyRussian, 1866-1944336 artworks
Paul KleeSwiss, 1879-1940242 artworks
August MackeGerman, 1887-1914108 artworks
Franz MarcGerman, 1880-1916343 artworks
Gabrielle MünterGerman, 1878-1955130 artworks
Marianne von WerefkinRussian, 1860-1938109 artworks
Peredvizhniki
Dates: 1863-1890
Russian artists who wanted to democratize art by travelling in the provinces - hence their name of "ambulants". They mostly painted common people at work and Russian landscapes.
 Artists
Abram Efimovich ArkhipovRussian, 1862-193056 artworks
Alexei BogoliubovRussian, 1824-1896473 artworks
Nikolai Nikanorovich DubovskoyRussian, 1859-191863 artworks
Nikolai Alekseevich KasatkinRussian, 1859-193018 artworks
Ivan Nikolaevich KramskoiRussian, 1837-1887121 artworks
Arkhip Ivanovich KuindzhiRussian, 1842-1910181 artworks
Nikolai Dmitrievich KuznetsovRussian, 1850-193022 artworks
Isaac LevitanRussian, 1860-1900598 artworks
Konstantin Yegorovich MakovskyRussian, 1839-1915403 artworks
Ivan PokhitonovRussian, 1850-192324 artworks
Vasily PolenovRussian, 1844-1927274 artworks
Ilia Efimovich RepinRussian, 1844-1930267 artworks
Alexei Kondratyevich SavrasovRussian, 1830-189758 artworks
Ivan Ivanovich ShishkinRussian, 1832-1898165 artworks
Alexei StepanovRussian, 1858-192374 artworks
Early Renaissance
Dates: 1420-1500
 Artists
Jacopo di AntonioItalian, 1427-14544 artworks
Alessio BaldovinettiItalian, 1425-14997 artworks
Gentile BelliniItalian, 1429-150728 artworks
Giovanni BelliniItalian, 1430-1516165 artworks
Jacopo BelliniItalian, 1400-147034 artworks
Pedro BerrugueteSpanish, 1450-150422 artworks
Boccaccio BoccaccinoItalian, 1467-15251 artwork
Benedetto BonfigliItalian, 1420-14963 artworks
Sandro BotticelliItalian, 1445-1510141 artworks
Francesco BotticiniItalian, 1446-149742 artworks
Andrea del CastagnoItalian, 1421-145714 artworks
Francesco del CossaItalian, 1430-147716 artworks
Carlo CrivelliItalian, 1430-149534 artworks
Taddeo CrivelliItalian, 1425-14791 artwork
Vittore CrivelliItalian, 1444-150120 artworks
Neri di BicciItalian, 1419-149114 artworks
Matteo di Giovanni di BartoloItalian, 1430-149510 artworks
DonatelloItalian, 1386-146627 artworks
Vincenzo FoppaItalian, 1430-151516 artworks
Fra AngelicoItalian, 1395-1455146 artworks
Piero della FrancescaItalian, 1415-149215 artworks
Lorenzo GhibertiItalian, 1378-14552 artworks
Domenico GhirlandaioItalian, 1449-149496 artworks
Matteo di GiovanniItalian, 1430-149523 artworks
Benozzo GozzoliItalian, 1421-149710 artworks
Fra Filippo LippiItalian, 1406-146969 artworks
Zanobi MachiavelliItalian, 1418-14793 artworks
Andrea MantegnaItalian, 1431-1506106 artworks
MasaccioItalian, 1401-142822 artworks
Melozzo da ForlìItalian, 1438-149412 artworks
Antonello da MessinaItalian, 1430-147927 artworks
Domenico di MichelinoItalian, 1417-14912 artworks
Giovanni di PaoloItalian, 1398-148239 artworks
PisanelloItalian, 1395-145517 artworks
Antonio del PollaiuoloItalian, 1433-149810 artworks
Piero PollaiuoloItalian, 1441-149612 artworks
Andrea della RobbiaItalian, 1435-152513 artworks
Ercole de' RobertiItalian, 1451-149618 artworks
Antoniazzo RomanoItalian, 1430-151012 artworks
Cosimo RosselliItalian, 1439-150724 artworks
Jacopo da SellaioItalian, 1442-149326 artworks
Cosmè TuraItalian, 1430-149527 artworks
Paolo UccelloItalian, 1397-147513 artworks
Domenico VenezianoItalian, 1410-146118 artworks
Andrea del VerrocchioItalian, 1435-148829 artworks
Alvise VivariniItalian, 1442-150310 artworks
Antonio VivariniItalian, 1410-148017 artworks
Bartolommeo VivariniItalian, 1432-149917 artworks
Marco ZoppoItalian, 1433-14789 artworks
Barbizon school
Dates: 1830-1880
French realist school. Its painters met in the village of Barbizon, near Paris. They mostly represented peasants at work in the fields.
 Artists
Edward Mitchell BannisterAmerican, 1828-190136 artworks
Pierre BilletFrench, 1837-19221 artwork
Jules-Adolphe BretonFrench, 1827-190680 artworks
Jean-Baptiste-Camille CorotFrench, 1796-1875793 artworks
Charles François DaubignyFrench, 1817-1878243 artworks
Narcisse Dìaz de la PeñaFrench, 1807-1876123 artworks
Jules DupréFrench, 1811-188992 artworks
George FullerAmerican, 1822-188411 artworks
William Morris HuntAmerican, 1824-1879132 artworks
Jean-François MilletFrench, 1814-1875133 artworks
Théodore RousseauFrench, 1812-1867108 artworks
Paul-Désiré TrouillebertFrench, 1829-190038 artworks
Constant TroyonFrench, 1810-1865138 artworks
Robert ZündSwiss, 1827-19099 artworks
Cubism
Dates: 1907-1925
 Artists
Alexandr ArchipenkoUkrainian, 1887-196413 artworks
Georges BraqueFrench, 1882-1963366 artworks
Robert DelaunayFrench, 1885-1941110 artworks
Roger de la FresnayeFrench, 1885-192581 artworks
Albert GleizesFrench, 1881-195387 artworks
Juan GrisSpanish, 1887-1927492 artworks
Marie LaurencinFrench, 1883-1956295 artworks
Henri LaurensFrench, 1885-19549 artworks
Henri Le FauconnierFrench, 1881-19465 artworks
Fernand LégerFrench, 1881-1955494 artworks
André LhoteFrench, 1885-1962331 artworks
Jacques LipchitzLithuanian, 1891-19735 artworks
Louis MarcoussisPolish, 1883-194181 artworks
Jean MetzingerFrench, 1883-1956154 artworks
Pablo PicassoSpanish, 1881-1973533 artworks
Alfred RethHungarian, 1884-196617 artworks
Les Nabis
Dates: 1888-1905
Group of French painters active in the 1890s, who focused on painting as a decorative art, exploring pattern and ornament.
 Artists
Pierre BonnardFrench, 1867-1947766 artworks
Maurice DenisFrench, 1870-1943310 artworks
Henri Gabriel IbelsFrench, 1867-19362 artworks
Georges LacombeFrench, 1868-191614 artworks
Aristide MaillolFrench, 1861-1944109 artworks
Paul RansonFrench, 1864-190981 artworks
József Rippl-RónaiHungarian, 1861-1930211 artworks
Ker Xavier RousselFrench, 1867-1944105 artworks
Paul SérusierFrench, 1864-1927153 artworks
Felix VallottonSwiss, 1865-1925271 artworks
Jan VerkadeDutch, 1868-19463 artworks
Edouard VuillardFrench, 1868-1940698 artworks
Hudson River School
Dates: 1825-1870
American art movement from 1825 to 1870, typified by landscape paintings of the Hudson River Valley in New York state with a Romantic aesthetic.
 Artists
Albert BierstadtAmerican, 1830-1902419 artworks
Alfred Thompson BricherAmerican, 1837-1908259 artworks
John W. CasilearAmerican, 1811-189331 artworks
Frederic Edwin ChurchAmerican, 1826-1900212 artworks
Thomas ColeEnglish, 1801-1848136 artworks
Samuel ColmanAmerican, 1832-192067 artworks
Jasper Francis CropseyAmerican, 1823-1900240 artworks
Thomas DoughtyAmerican, 1793-185659 artworks
Asher Brown DurandAmerican, 1796-1886139 artworks
Sanford Robinson GiffordAmerican, 1823-1880192 artworks
James McDougal HartAmerican, 1828-190146 artworks
William M. HartAmerican, 1823-189441 artworks
William Stanley HaseltineAmerican, 1835-190088 artworks
Robert Havell Jr.American, 1793-187811 artworks
Herman HerzogAmerican, 1832-1932115 artworks
Thomas HillEnglish, 1829-1908125 artworks
George InnessAmerican, 1825-1894311 artworks
David JohnsonAmerican, 1827-190884 artworks
John Frederick KensettAmerican, 1816-1872177 artworks
Homer Dodge MartinAmerican, 1836-189753 artworks
Jervis McEnteeAmerican, 1828-189197 artworks
William Rickarby MillerAmerican, 1818-189317 artworks
Thomas MoranAmerican, 1837-1926347 artworks
Francis A. SilvaAmerican, 1835-188680 artworks
James Augustus SuydamAmerican, 1819-18659 artworks
Robert Walter WeirAmerican, 1803-188922 artworks
Thomas Worthington WhittredgeAmerican, 1820-1910155 artworks
Die Brücke
Dates: 1905-1912
First German expressionist group. Its members were influenced by primitive arts and painted with strong brush strokes and unmixed colours, like the Fauvists - their French counterparts.
 Artists
Erich HeckelGerman, 1883-197085 artworks
Ernst Ludwig KirchnerGerman, 1880-1938263 artworks
Otto MüellerGerman, 1874-193030 artworks
Emil NoldeGerman, 1867-19561102 artworks
Hermann Max PechsteinGerman, 1881-1955194 artworks
Karl Schmidt-RottluffGerman, 1884-197664 artworks
Bauhaus
Dates: 1919-1932

A school of architecture, design and art founded in Germany in 1919. Bauhaus is characterized by severely economic, geometric design and by respect for materials.

 Artists
Lyonel FeiningerAmerican, 1871-1956234 artworks
Wassily KandinskyRussian, 1866-1944336 artworks
Paul KleeSwiss, 1879-1940242 artworks
El LissitzkyRussian, 1890-19413 artworks
Oskar SchlemmerGerman, 1888-194312 artworks
Symbolism
Dates: 1870-1910
 Artists
Włodzimierz BłockiPolish, 1885-19201 artwork
Arnold BöcklinSwiss, 1827-190138 artworks
August BrömseCzech, 1873-19252 artworks
Mikalojus CiurlionisLithuanian, 1875-191118 artworks
Jean DelvilleBelgian, 1867-195317 artworks
Maurice DenisFrench, 1870-1943310 artworks
John McKirdy DuncanScottish, 1866-194566 artworks
Léon FrédéricGerman, 1856-19403 artworks
Kahlil GibranLebanese, 1883-19314 artworks
Lajos GulácsyHungarian, 1882-19326 artworks
Karel HlaváčekCzech, 1874-18986 artworks
Ferdinand HodlerSwiss, 1853-1918134 artworks
Emil HolárekCzech, 1867-19192 artworks
Fernand KhnopffBelgian, 1858-192140 artworks
Gustav KlimtAustrian, 1862-1918160 artworks
Josef MandlCzech, 1874-19333 artworks
Gustave MoreauFrench, 1826-1898125 artworks
Edvard MunchNorwegian, 1863-19441672 artworks
Gaetano PreviatiItalian, 1852-19205 artworks
Pierre Puvis de ChavannesFrench, 1824-189884 artworks
Odilon RedonFrench, 1840-1916577 artworks
Félicien RopsBelgian, 1833-18985 artworks
Henri RousseauFrench, 1855-1910119 artworks
Carlos SchwabeGerman, 1866-192629 artworks
Franz von StuckGerman, 1863-192868 artworks
Jan TooropDutch, 1858-192821 artworks
Elihu VedderAmerican, 1836-192386 artworks
Ashcan school
Dates: 1908-1920
American art movement of the early 20th century, known for portraying daily life of the urban lower classes, especially in New York City.
 Artists
Gifford BealAmerican, 1879-195639 artworks
George Wesley BellowsAmerican, 1882-1925262 artworks
William James GlackensAmerican, 1870-1938293 artworks
Robert HenriAmerican, 1865-1925369 artworks
Edward HopperAmerican, 1882-1967348 artworks
George Benjamin LuksAmerican, 1867-1933122 artworks
Jerome MyersAmerican, 1867-194015 artworks
Everett ShinnAmerican, 1876-1953103 artworks
John SloanAmerican, 1871-1951155 artworks
Pop Art
Dates: 1955-1975
Anglo-Saxon movement which used advertising and comics imageries or daily life objects to turn them into artworks.
 Artists
Allan d'ArcangeloAmerican, 1930-19981 artwork
Peter Blake1932-?15 artworks
Stuart DavisAmerican, 1892-1964154 artworks
Keith HaringAmerican, 1958-1990
Andy WarholAmerican, 1928-198726 artworks
Veduta
Dates: 1720-1770
Italian artists who specialized in painting panoramas of Rome, Venice and landscapes with ruins, which they sold to English gentlemen as souvenirs of their Grand Tour.
 Artists
Paolo AnesiItalian, 1697-177328 artworks
Bernardo BellottoItalian, 1721-178076 artworks
CanalettoItalian, 1697-1768163 artworks
Luca CarlevarisItalian, 1665-17319 artworks
Giovanni Battista CimaroliItalian, 1687-17717 artworks
Jacopo FabrisItalian, 1689-17611 artwork
Francesco GuardiItalian, 1712-1793233 artworks
Antonio JoliItalian, 1700-177737 artworks
Hendrik Frans van LintBelgian, 1684-176317 artworks
Andrea LocatelliItalian, 1693-17411 artwork
Michele Giovanni MarieschiItalian, 1710-174314 artworks
William Marlow1740-181360 artworks
Giovanni Paolo PaniniItalian, 1691-1765137 artworks
Marco RicciItalian, 1676-173017 artworks
Hubert RobertFrench, 1733-180899 artworks
Howard TangyeAustralian36 artworks
French School 18th Century - UnknownFrench, 1700-18006 artworks
Claude-Joseph VernetFrench, 1714-1789142 artworks
Pierre-Jacques VolaireFrench, 1729-179913 artworks
Northern Renaissance
Dates: 1500-1590
Art movement which occurred mainly in Germany and the Low Countries when the Renaissance style spread outside Italy and mixed with Late Gothic and Early Netherlandish styles.
 Artists
Pieter AertsenDutch, 1508-157533 artworks
Heinrich AldegreverGerman, 1502-15611 artwork
Albrecht AltdorferGerman, 1480-153833 artworks
Christoph AmbergerGerman, 1505-156211 artworks
Cornelis Anthonisz.Dutch, 1505-1553
Hans Baldung GrienGerman, 1484-154598 artworks
Ambrosius BensonBelgian, 1484-155053 artworks
John Bettes the ElderEnglish, 1531-15703 artworks
Joachim BeuckelaerBelgian, 1534-157437 artworks
Jörg Breu the ElderGerman, 1475-15375 artworks
Pieter Bruegel the ElderBelgian, 1525-1569190 artworks
Bartholomäeus Bruyn the ElderGerman, 1493-155527 artworks
Joos van CleveDutch, 1485-154054 artworks
Lucas Cranach the ElderGerman, 1472-1553153 artworks
Lucas Cranach the YoungerGerman, 1515-1586109 artworks
Adriaen van CronenburgDutch, 1525-16043 artworks
Herri Met de BlesBelgian, 1510-15603 artworks
Albrecht DürerGerman, 1471-1528438 artworks
Hans EworthDutch, 1520-157814 artworks
Frans FlorisBelgian, 1516-157012 artworks
Jan Gossaert (Called Mabuse)Belgian, 1478-153250 artworks
Matthias GrunewaldGerman, 1470-152818 artworks
Jan Sanders van HemessenDutch, 1500-156612 artworks
Hans Holbein the YoungerGerman, 1497-1543153 artworks
Adriaen IsenbrandtBelgian, 1485-155138 artworks
Hans Maler zu SchwazGerman, 1480-152911 artworks
Jan MandijnDutch, 1500-15603 artworks
Cornelis MassysBelgian, 1510-15563 artworks
Master of 1518Belgian, 1490-15308 artworks
Jan MostaertDutch, 1472-155518 artworks
Bernard van OrleyBelgian, 1487-15417 artworks
Pieter PourbusBelgian, 1523-158429 artworks
Jan Van ScorelDutch, 1495-156236 artworks
Jacob SeiseneggerAustrian, 1505-15675 artworks
Isaac Claesz van SwanenburgDutch, 1537-16245 artworks
Dada
Dates: 1916-1924
 Artists
Jean ArpSwiss, 1886-196624 artworks
Johannes Theodor BaargeldGerman, 1891-19271 artwork
Jean CrottiFrench, 1878-19581 artwork
Marcel DuchampFrench, 1887-196811 artworks
Max ErnstGerman, 1891-197652 artworks
George GroszGerman, 1883-1959130 artworks
Hannah HochGerman, 1889-19782 artworks
Francis PicabiaFrench, 1879-1953415 artworks
Kurt SchwittersGerman, 1887-194856 artworks
Early Netherlandish
Dates: 1400-1530
 Artists
Hieronymus BoschDutch, 1450-151657 artworks
Aert van den BosscheBelgian, 1490-15101 artwork
Dierec BoutsDutch, 1415-147528 artworks
Robert CampinDutch, 1378-144434 artworks
Petrus ChristusDutch, 1410-147527 artworks
Jacques DaretBelgian, 1404-14703 artworks
Gheeraert (Gerard) DavidBelgian, 1460-152335 artworks
Bartelemy d'EyckBelgian, 1444-14701 artwork
Hubert Van EyckBelgian, 1385-14261 artwork
Jan van EyckDutch, 1393-144129 artworks
Hugo van der GoesDutch, 1440-148221 artworks
Jean HeyDutch, 1475-150516 artworks
Thomas de KeyserDutch, 1596-166733 artworks
Neroccio de' LandiItalian, 1447-150011 artworks
Josse LieferinxeBelgian, 1493-15087 artworks
MasolinoItalian, 1383-144715 artworks
Jan MassysBelgian, 1510-157515 artworks
Master of the Embroidered FoliageBelgian, 1480-15108 artworks
Master of the Virgo inter VirginesDutch, 1460-150015 artworks
Hans MemlingDutch, 1435-149486 artworks
Quentin MetsysBelgian, 1466-153055 artworks
Jacob Cornelisz. van OostsanenDutch, 1475-153314 artworks
Geerten tot Sint JansDutch, 1465-149513 artworks
Maarten van HeemskerckDutch, 1498-15744 artworks
Rogier van der WeydenBelgian, 1399-146433 artworks
Fauvism
Dates: 1904-1912
French artists who painted with wild brush work and colours, hence their name. Can be considered as the French branch of early Expressionism.
 Artists
Alice BaillySwiss, 1872-1938122 artworks
Georges BraqueFrench, 1882-1963366 artworks
Charles CamoinFrench, 1879-1965165 artworks
André DerainFrench, 1880-1954316 artworks
Raoul DufyFrench, 1877-1953951 artworks
Henri-Jacques EvenepoelBelgian, 1872-18998 artworks
Achille Emile-Othon FrieszFrench, 1879-1949298 artworks
Maggie LaubserSouth African, 1886-1973
Henri ManguinFrench, 1874-1949166 artworks
Albert MarquetFrench, 1875-1947457 artworks
Henri MatisseFrench, 1869-1954773 artworks
Jean MetzingerFrench, 1883-1956154 artworks
Jean PuyFrench, 1876-196020 artworks
Georges RouaultFrench, 1871-1958404 artworks
Louis ValtatFrench, 1869-1952560 artworks
Kees Van DongenDutch, 1877-1968494 artworks
Maurice de VlaminckFrench, 1876-1958885 artworks
High Renaissance
Dates: 1500-1530
Golden age of Italian painting, with great masters such as Da Vinci, Michelangelo or Raphael, who set the rules of painting for centuries.
 Artists
Giovanni Antonio BoltraffioItalian, 1467-151622 artworks
Michelangelo BuonarrotiItalian, 1475-1564168 artworks
Giovanni CarianiItalian, 1485-154737 artworks
Vincenzo CatenaItalian, 1470-153127 artworks
CorreggioItalian, 1489-1534155 artworks
Lucas Cranach the ElderGerman, 1472-1553153 artworks
Battista DossiItalian, 1490-15484 artworks
Fra BartolommeoItalian, 1472-151719 artworks
Niccolò Giolfino the YoungerItalian, 1476-15553 artworks
GiorgioneItalian, 1478-151031 artworks
Hans Holbein the YoungerGerman, 1497-1543153 artworks
Leonardo da VinciItalian, 1452-151943 artworks
Lorenzo LottoItalian, 1480-1557108 artworks
Bernardino LuiniItalian, 1480-153232 artworks
Moretto da BresciaItalian, 1498-155432 artworks
Sebastiano del PiomboItalian, 1485-154749 artworks
RaphaelItalian, 1483-1520195 artworks
Gerolamo RomaninoItalian, 1485-156620 artworks
Andrea del SartoItalian, 1486-153025 artworks
Giovanni Girolamo SavoldoItalian, 1480-15489 artworks
Luca SignorelliItalian, 1445-152362 artworks
Andrea SolarioItalian, 1465-152423 artworks
TitianItalian, 1488-1576279 artworks
Girolamo da Travis the YoungerItalian, 1497-15444 artworks
Jacopo Palma il VecchioItalian, 1480-152847 artworks
Bartolomeo VenetoItalian, 1480-154637 artworks
Caravaggisti
Dates: 1590-1640
First stage of Baroque, with many artists all over Europe who closely followed Caravaggio's style of strong Chiaroscuro.
 Artists
Dirck van BaburenDutch, 1595-162412 artworks
Giovanni BaglioneItalian, 1566-164316 artworks
Jan van BijlertDutch, 1597-167130 artworks
Valentin de BoulogneFrench, 1591-163243 artworks
Giovanni Battista CaraccioloItalian, 1578-16358 artworks
CaravaggioItalian, 1571-161069 artworks
Bartolomeo CavarozziItalian, 1590-162511 artworks
Georges de la TourFrench, 1593-165245 artworks
Cecco del CaravaggioItalian, 1610-16258 artworks
Domenico FettiItalian, 1589-162365 artworks
Artemisia GentileschiItalian, 1593-165233 artworks
Orazio GentileschiItalian, 1563-163939 artworks
Gerard van HonthorstDutch, 1592-165694 artworks
Bartolomeo ManfrediItalian, 1582-162215 artworks
Mattia PretiItalian, 1613-169932 artworks
Nicolas RégnierBelgian, 1591-166724 artworks
Jusepe de RiberaSpanish, 1591-1652100 artworks
Carlo SaraceniItalian, 1579-162013 artworks
Gerard SeghersBelgian, 1591-165116 artworks
Leonello SpadaItalian, 1576-16224 artworks
Massimo StanzioneItalian, 1586-165612 artworks
Matthias StomDutch, 1600-165024 artworks
Hendrick TerbrugghenDutch, 1588-162951 artworks
Nicolas TournierFrench, 1590-163915 artworks
Claude VignonFrench, 1593-167024 artworks
Simon VouetFrench, 1590-164973 artworks
Francisco de ZurbaránSpanish, 1598-1664107 artworks
Abstraction-Création
Dates: 1931-1936
Abstract art group based in Paris. Its members wanted to revive abstract art which had declined in the late 1920's, challenged by Surrealism.
 Artists
Willi BaumeisterGerman, 1889-195522 artworks
Max BillSwiss, 1908-19941 artwork
Auguste HerbinFrench, 1882-1960193 artworks
Alfred RethHungarian, 1884-196617 artworks
Kurt SchwittersGerman, 1887-194856 artworks
Suprematism
Dates: 1913-1927
First abstract group, founded around Malevitch. Its members painted monochrome geometric forms, usually in black, white, or primary colours.
 Artists
Ilya ChashnikRussian, 1902-19297 artworks
Ivan KliunRussian, 1873-19434 artworks
Kasimir MalevichRussian, 1878-1935118 artworks
Liubov PopovaRussian, 1889-192475 artworks
Olga RozanovaRussian, 1886-19183 artworks
Nikolai SuetinRussian, 1897-19542 artworks
Expressionism
Dates: 1905-1940

European art movement which consisted on many small and short-living groups. Each one painted with unconventional colours and distorted perspectives in order to "express" personal emotions.

 Artists
Ilmari AaltoFinnish, 1891-19348 artworks
Alexandr ArchipenkoUkrainian, 1887-196413 artworks
Alice BaillySwiss, 1872-1938122 artworks
Giacomo BallaItalian, 1871-195859 artworks
Max BeckmannGerman, 1884-1950475 artworks
Albert BlochGerman, 1882-19619 artworks
Umberto BoccioniItalian, 1882-191632 artworks
Georges BraqueFrench, 1882-1963366 artworks
David Davidovich BurliukRussian, 1882-196793 artworks
Charles CamoinFrench, 1879-1965165 artworks
Heinrich CampendonkGerman, 1889-195726 artworks
Benedetta Cappa MarinettiItalian, 1897-197710 artworks
Carlo CarràItalian, 1881-196628 artworks
Marc ChagallFrench, 1887-1985249 artworks
Lovis CorinthGerman, 1858-1925292 artworks
Tullio CraliItalian, 1910-20006 artworks
Robert DelaunayFrench, 1885-1941110 artworks
Fortunato DeperoItalian, 1892-19601 artwork
André DerainFrench, 1880-1954316 artworks
Otto DixGerman, 1891-1969281 artworks
Raoul DufyFrench, 1877-1953951 artworks
Henri-Jacques EvenepoelBelgian, 1872-18998 artworks
Lyonel FeiningerAmerican, 1871-1956234 artworks
Roger de la FresnayeFrench, 1885-192581 artworks
Achille Emile-Othon FrieszFrench, 1879-1949298 artworks
Albert GleizesFrench, 1881-195387 artworks
Natalia GoncharovaRussian, 1881-1962126 artworks
Juan GrisSpanish, 1887-1927492 artworks
Erich HeckelGerman, 1883-197085 artworks
Alexei JawlenskyRussian, 1864-1941681 artworks
Wassily KandinskyRussian, 1866-1944336 artworks
Ernst Ludwig KirchnerGerman, 1880-1938263 artworks
Paul KleeSwiss, 1879-1940242 artworks
Mikhail Fedorovich LarionovRussian, 1881-196452 artworks
Maggie LaubserSouth African, 1886-1973
Marie LaurencinFrench, 1883-1956295 artworks
Henri LaurensFrench, 1885-19549 artworks
Henri Le FauconnierFrench, 1881-19465 artworks
Fernand LégerFrench, 1881-1955494 artworks
Wyndham Lewis1882-195753 artworks
André LhoteFrench, 1885-1962331 artworks
Jacques LipchitzLithuanian, 1891-19735 artworks
August MackeGerman, 1887-1914108 artworks
Henri ManguinFrench, 1874-1949166 artworks
Franz MarcGerman, 1880-1916343 artworks
Louis MarcoussisPolish, 1883-194181 artworks
Albert MarquetFrench, 1875-1947457 artworks
Henri MatisseFrench, 1869-1954773 artworks
Jean MetzingerFrench, 1883-1956154 artworks
Paula Modersohn-BeckerGerman, 1876-1907147 artworks
Amedeo ModiglianiItalian, 1884-1920313 artworks
Otto MüellerGerman, 1874-193030 artworks
Edvard MunchNorwegian, 1863-19441672 artworks
Gabrielle MünterGerman, 1878-1955130 artworks
Emil NoldeGerman, 1867-19561102 artworks
Hermann Max PechsteinGerman, 1881-1955194 artworks
Constant PermekeBelgian, 1886-19528 artworks
Pablo PicassoSpanish, 1881-1973533 artworks
Liubov PopovaRussian, 1889-192475 artworks
Jean PuyFrench, 1876-196020 artworks
Alfred RethHungarian, 1884-196617 artworks
Georges RouaultFrench, 1871-1958404 artworks
Henri RousseauFrench, 1855-1910119 artworks
Luigi RussoloItalian, 1883-19474 artworks
Egon SchieleAustrian, 1890-1918352 artworks
Karl Schmidt-RottluffGerman, 1884-197664 artworks
Gino SeveriniItalian, 1883-196648 artworks
Mario SironiItalian, 1885-196114 artworks
Ardengo SofficiItalian, 1879-19641 artwork
Chaim SoutineBelarusan, 1894-1943532 artworks
Howard TangyeAustralian36 artworks
Maurice de VlaminckFrench, 1876-1958885 artworks
Johann Heinrich VogelerGerman, 1872-194246 artworks
Edward Wadsworth1889-194954 artworks
Max WeberPolish, 1881-196156 artworks
Albert WeisgerberGerman, 1878-19153 artworks
Marianne von WerefkinRussian, 1860-1938109 artworks
Dutch Golden Age
Dates: 1600-1680

Flourishing period in the Dutch Republic, with a global production of several millions of still lifes, portraits, genre scenes and landscapes - genres hitherto neglected in favour of religious painting.

 Artists
Willem van AelstDutch, 1626-168345 artworks
Pieter Jansz. van AschDutch, 1603-167814 artworks
Jan AsselijnDutch, 1610-165250 artworks
Bartholomeus AssteynDutch, 1607-17705 artworks
Balthasar van der AstDutch, 1593-165737 artworks
Barent AvercampDutch, 1612-167918 artworks
Hendrick AvercampDutch, 1585-163438 artworks
Dirck van BaburenDutch, 1595-162412 artworks
Jacob Adriaensz BackerDutch, 1608-165133 artworks
Ludolf BackhuysenDutch, 1631-170881 artworks
David BaillyDutch, 1584-16676 artworks
Bartholomeus van BassenDutch, 1590-165213 artworks
Cornelis BeeltDutch, 1640-17022 artworks
Jan Abrahamsz BeerstratenDutch, 1622-166613 artworks
Cornelis Pietersz BegaDutch, 1620-166418 artworks
Jacob Adriaensz BellevoisDutch, 1621-16766 artworks
Nicolaes Pietersz BerchemDutch, 1620-1683125 artworks
Gerrit Adriaenszoon BerckheydeDutch, 1638-169857 artworks
Job Adriaenszoon BerckheydeDutch, 1630-16933 artworks
Christoffel van den BergheDutch, 1590-16456 artworks
Abraham van BeyerenDutch, 1620-169021 artworks
Cornelis BisschopDutch, 1630-167411 artworks
Ferdinand BolDutch, 1616-168057 artworks
Hans BollongierDutch, 1600-16734 artworks
Abraham BosschaertDutch, 1612-16434 artworks
Ambrosius Bosschaert the ElderDutch, 1573-162121 artworks
Ambrosius Bosschaert the YoungerDutch, 1609-16456 artworks
Johannes BosschaertDutch, 1606-16296 artworks
Jan BothDutch, 1618-165242 artworks
Esaias BoursseDutch, 1631-16725 artworks
Leonaert BramerDutch, 1596-167425 artworks
Salomon de BrayDutch, 1597-166410 artworks
Bartholomeus BreenberghDutch, 1598-165723 artworks
Quiringh van BrekelenkamDutch, 1622-166942 artworks
Elias van den BroeckBelgian, 1649-170812 artworks
Johannes van BronckhorstDutch, 1648-172712 artworks
Adriaen Frans BrouwerDutch, 1605-163817 artworks
Abraham van CalraetDutch, 1642-172231 artworks
Jan van de CappelleDutch, 1626-167929 artworks
Cornelis Janssens van CeulenDutch, 1593-1661123 artworks
Anthony Claesz. the YoungerDutch, 1616-16523 artworks
Pieter ClaeszDutch, 1597-166040 artworks
Pieter CoddeDutch, 1599-167836 artworks
Edwart CollierDutch, 1640-171022 artworks
Adam de ColoneDutch, 1572-16511 artwork
Adam ColoniaDutch, 1634-16855 artworks
Adriaen CoorteDutch, 1665-170713 artworks
Laurens CraenDutch, 1620-16704 artworks
Pieter van der CroosDutch, 1609-16773 artworks
Abraham van CuylenborchDutch, 1610-16584 artworks
Aelbert CuypDutch, 1620-169178 artworks
Benjamin Gerritsz. CuypDutch, 1612-16529 artworks
Cornelis Gerritsz. DeckerDutch, 1623-167811 artworks
Dirck van DelenDutch, 1604-167137 artworks
Anthonie de DelormeDutch, 1610-16738 artworks
Olivier van DeurenDutch, 1666-17142 artworks
Abraham DiepraemDutch, 1622-16705 artworks
Floris van DijckDutch, 1575-16517 artworks
Gerrit DouDutch, 1613-167573 artworks
Willem DrostDutch, 1630-16782 artworks
Hendrick Jacobsz. DubbelsDutch, 1621-170711 artworks
Jacob DuckDutch, 1600-166718 artworks
Karel DujardinDutch, 1626-167857 artworks
Willem Cornelisz DuysterDutch, 1599-163521 artworks
Gerbrand van den EeckhoutDutch, 1621-167442 artworks
Allaert van EverdingenDutch, 1621-167516 artworks
Caesar van EverdingenDutch, 1617-167825 artworks
Carel FabritiusDutch, 1622-165420 artworks
Govaert FlinckDutch, 1615-166078 artworks
Jean-Baptiste FornenburghDutch, 1585-16498 artworks
Wybrand GeestDutch, 1592-16617 artworks
Aert de GelderDutch, 1645-172765 artworks
Jan Josefz van GoyenDutch, 1596-165690 artworks
Joris van der HaagenDutch, 1615-16697 artworks
Johannes van HaensbergenDutch, 1642-170510 artworks
Dirck HalsDutch, 1591-165640 artworks
Frans HalsDutch, 1582-1666168 artworks
Jan HalsDutch, 1620-16543 artworks
Gerrit Willemsz HedaDutch, 1620-17025 artworks
Willem Claesz HedaDutch, 1594-167032 artworks
Cornelis de HeemDutch, 1631-16959 artworks
Jan Davidszoon de HeemDutch, 1606-168472 artworks
Bartolomeus van der HelstDutch, 1613-167032 artworks
Lodewijk van der HelstDutch, 1642-16824 artworks
Herman HenstenburghDutch, 1667-17269 artworks
Jan van der HeydenDutch, 1637-171269 artworks
Meindert HobbemaDutch, 1638-170952 artworks
Melchior de HondecoetterDutch, 1636-169534 artworks
Pieter de HoochDutch, 1629-168469 artworks
Samuel Van HoogstratenDutch, 1627-167812 artworks
Gerard HouckgeestDutch, 1600-16613 artworks
Jan van HuchtenburghDutch, 1647-17337 artworks
Jan de BrayDutch, 1627-169736 artworks
Ludolf de JonghDutch, 1616-16794 artworks
Willem KalfDutch, 1610-169344 artworks
Cornelis KickDutch, 1634-16816 artworks
Simon KickDutch, 1603-16528 artworks
Philips de KoninckDutch, 1619-168853 artworks
Salomon KoninckDutch, 1609-165630 artworks
Philip van KouwenberghDutch, 1671-17293 artworks
Pieter van LaerDutch, 1599-16421 artwork
Judith LeysterDutch, 1609-166025 artworks
Jan LievensDutch, 1607-167478 artworks
Johannes LingelbachDutch, 1622-167434 artworks
Isaack LuttichuysDutch, 1616-16739 artworks
Nicolaes MaesDutch, 1634-169371 artworks
Cornelis de ManDutch, 1621-170613 artworks
Jacob MarrelGerman, 1614-16815 artworks
Gabriël MetsuDutch, 1629-1667127 artworks
Michiel Jansz. van MiereveltDutch, 1567-164145 artworks
Frans van Mieris the ElderDutch, 1635-168157 artworks
Abraham MignonGerman, 1640-167921 artworks
Daniël MijtensDutch, 1590-164849 artworks
Jan MijtensDutch, 1614-167030 artworks
Jan Miense MolenaerDutch, 1611-166883 artworks
Paulus MoreelseDutch, 1571-163857 artworks
Jan MortelDutch, 1652-17194 artworks
Frederick de MoucheronDutch, 1633-168611 artworks
Michiel van MusscherDutch, 1645-17057 artworks
Aert van der NeerDutch, 1603-167744 artworks
Caspar NetscherDutch, 1639-168460 artworks
Jacob OchterveltDutch, 1634-168233 artworks
Jan OlisDutch, 1610-167615 artworks
Maria van OosterwijckDutch, 1630-16937 artworks
Adriaen van OstadeDutch, 1610-1685144 artworks
Isaac van OstadeDutch, 1621-164934 artworks
Anthonie PalamedeszDutch, 1601-16738 artworks
Palamedes Palamedesz IDutch, 1607-16382 artworks
Nicolaes Eliaszoon PickenoyDutch, 1588-165016 artworks
Carel van der PluymDutch, 1625-16722 artworks
Egbert van der PoelDutch, 1621-166421 artworks
Cornelius van PoelenburghDutch, 1594-166764 artworks
Frans PostDutch, 1612-168012 artworks
Hendrik Gerritsz. PotDutch, 1585-165720 artworks
Paulus PotterDutch, 1625-165444 artworks
Adam PynackerDutch, 1620-167334 artworks
Pieter QuastDutch, 1605-164710 artworks
Jan Anthonisz van RavesteynDutch, 1570-165720 artworks
George Ogilvy ReidEnglish, 1851-192823 artworks
Rembrandt van RijnDutch, 1606-1669694 artworks
Pieter de RingDutch, 1615-16609 artworks
Roelant RoghmanDutch, 1627-16928 artworks
Gillis RomboutsDutch, 1630-16724 artworks
Jan Albertsz RotiusDutch, 1624-16668 artworks
Jacob van RuisdaelDutch, 1628-1682184 artworks
Salomon van RuysdaelDutch, 1600-167048 artworks
Salomonsz. van RuysdaelDutch, 1629-16816 artworks
Eise Aetes RuytenbachDutch, 1656-16921 artwork
Pieter SaenredamDutch, 1597-166520 artworks
Ethel Sands1873-196221 artworks
Roelant SaveryDutch, 1576-163926 artworks
Godfried SchalckenDutch, 1643-170678 artworks
Abraham van der SchoorDutch, 1600-16601 artwork
Floris van SchootenDutch, 1590-165518 artworks
Otto van SchrieckDutch, 1613-167814 artworks
Hendrik Martensz. SorghDutch, 1609-167030 artworks
Pieter Claesz. SoutmanDutch, 1590-165713 artworks
Jan SteenDutch, 1625-1679181 artworks
Abraham Jansz. StorckDutch, 1644-170835 artworks
Ernst StuvenGerman, 1657-17126 artworks
Gerard TerborchDutch, 1617-168167 artworks
Hendrick TerbrugghenDutch, 1588-162951 artworks
Wallerant VaillantDutch, 1623-16777 artworks
Werner Jacobsz. van den ValckertDutch, 1585-16355 artworks
Willem van AelstDutch, 1627-1683
Anthonie van BorssumDutch, 1630-16774 artworks
Jacob Van LooDutch, 1614-167078 artworks
Adriaen van de VeldeDutch, 1636-167292 artworks
Esaias van der Velde IDutch, 1587-163014 artworks
Willem van der Velde the ElderDutch, 1611-16937 artworks
Willem van de Velde the YoungerDutch, 1633-1707173 artworks
Jacob van VelsenDutch, 1597-16564 artworks
Adriaen van de VenneDutch, 1580-166221 artworks
Pieter Cornelisz.VerbeeckDutch, 1610-16544 artworks
Johannes VermeerDutch, 1632-167537 artworks
Jan Vermeer van UtrechtDutch, 1630-16961 artwork
Simon de VliegerDutch, 1601-165344 artworks
Hendrick Cornelisz van VlietDutch, 1611-167530 artworks
Daniel VosmaerDutch, 1622-16696 artworks
Nicolaes de VreeDutch, 1645-17022 artworks
Jacobus VrelDutch, 1617-168116 artworks
Abraham de VriesDutch, 1590-16558 artworks
Roelof van VriesDutch, 1631-168117 artworks
Jacob van WalscapelleDutch, 1644-17278 artworks
Jan WeenixDutch, 1640-171934 artworks
Adriaen van der WerffDutch, 1659-172220 artworks
Jacob Willemsz. de WetDutch, 1610-167113 artworks
Jan WijnantsDutch, 1632-168476 artworks
Adam WillaertsDutch, 1577-16444 artworks
Matthias WithoosDutch, 1627-17035 artworks
Emanuel de WitteDutch, 1617-169248 artworks
Philips WouwermanDutch, 1619-1668130 artworks
Pieter WouwermanDutch, 1623-16828 artworks
Baroque
Dates: 1590-1720

Baroque is actually a general category which includes several distinct schools of the 17th century. As for the Renaissance, the movement started in Italy, but the Spanish and Dutch Netherlands took the lead between 1620-1680, then France from 1650 onwards.

 Artists
Alexander AdriaenssenBelgian, 1587-166110 artworks
Willem van AelstDutch, 1626-168345 artworks
Benito Manuel AgueroSpanish, 1624-16684 artworks
Francesco AlbaniItalian, 1578-1660160 artworks
José AntolinezSpanish, 1635-167522 artworks
Juan de ArellanoSpanish, 1614-167630 artworks
Gioacchino AsseretoItalian, 1600-164928 artworks
Claude Audran (II)French, 1639-1684
Dirck van BaburenDutch, 1595-162412 artworks
Giovanni BaglioneItalian, 1566-164316 artworks
Antonio BalestraItalian, 1666-174021 artworks
Paolo Antonio BarbieriItalian, 1603-16495 artworks
Francisco BarreraSpanish, 1595-16587 artworks
Evaristo BaschenisItalian, 1617-167713 artworks
Lubin BauginFrench, 1612-166311 artworks
Osias BeertBelgian, 1580-162335 artworks
Giovanni BeinaschiItalian, 1636-16882 artworks
Antonio de BellisItalian, 1616-16564 artworks
Gian Lorenzo BerniniItalian, 1598-168092 artworks
Jan van BijlertDutch, 1597-167130 artworks
Giovanni BilivertiItalian, 1585-16443 artworks
Jacques BlanchardFrench, 1600-163820 artworks
Jan BoeckhorstBelgian, 1605-16684 artworks
Pieter BoelBelgian, 1626-167415 artworks
Jan BothDutch, 1618-165242 artworks
Pieter van BoucleBelgian, 1610-16734 artworks
Bon BoullogneFrench, 1649-171718 artworks
Louis Boullogne the ElderFrench, 1609-16745 artworks
Madeleine BoullogneFrench, 1646-17104 artworks
Louis de Boullogne the YoungerFrench, 1654-173346 artworks
Valentin de BoulogneFrench, 1591-163243 artworks
Sébastien BourdonFrench, 1616-167165 artworks
Jan Brueghel the YoungerBelgian, 1601-167820 artworks
Juan Martín CabezaleroSpanish, 1633-16736 artworks
Guido CagnacciItalian, 1601-16632 artworks
Francesco CairoItalian, 1607-166714 artworks
Pedro de CamprobinSpanish, 1605-167415 artworks
Alonso CanoSpanish, 1601-166731 artworks
Giovanni Battista CaraccioloItalian, 1578-16358 artworks
CaravaggioItalian, 1571-161069 artworks
Annibale CarracciItalian, 1560-160980 artworks
Juan Carreño de MirandaSpanish, 1614-168532 artworks
Valerio CastelloItalian, 1624-165913 artworks
Giovanni CastiglioneItalian, 1609-166435 artworks
Antonio del Castillo y SaavedraSpanish, 1616-16683 artworks
Bernardo CavallinoItalian, 1616-165614 artworks
Bartolomeo CavarozziItalian, 1590-162511 artworks
Mateo CerezoSpanish, 1637-16664 artworks
Cornelis Janssens van CeulenDutch, 1593-1661123 artworks
Philippe de ChampaigneFrench, 1602-167431 artworks
Carlo CignaniItalian, 1628-17197 artworks
Nicolas ColombelFrench, 1644-171720 artworks
Pietro da CortonaItalian, 1596-166939 artworks
Jan CossiersBelgian, 1600-16716 artworks
Juan Sànchez CotànSpanish, 1560-162710 artworks
Jacques CourtoisFrench, 1621-167621 artworks
Antoine Coypel IIFrench, 1661-172282 artworks
Noël Coypel IFrench, 1628-170755 artworks
Antoine CoysevoxFrench, 1640-172029 artworks
Francesco CozzaItalian, 1605-16823 artworks
Giovanni Battista CrespiItalian, 1575-16325 artworks
Jean DaretBelgian, 1614-166812 artworks
Virgina da VezzoItalian, 1601-16382 artworks
Georges de la TourFrench, 1593-165245 artworks
Cecco del CaravaggioItalian, 1610-16258 artworks
Francois De NomeFrench, 1588-16234 artworks
Carlo DolciItalian, 1616-168642 artworks
DomenichinoItalian, 1581-164127 artworks
Michel DorignyFrench, 1617-16634 artworks
Charles-Alphonse DufresnoyFrench, 1611-166818 artworks
Gaspard DughetFrench, 1615-167586 artworks
Anthony van DyckBelgian, 1599-1641477 artworks
Jacob Foppens van EsBelgian, 1596-166621 artworks
Domenico FettiItalian, 1589-162365 artworks
Marcantonio FranceschiniItalian, 1648-1729115 artworks
Frans Francken the YoungerBelgian, 1581-164235 artworks
Francesco FuriniItalian, 1603-164612 artworks
Filippo GagliardiItalian, 1607-16594 artworks
Giovanna GarzoniItalian, 1600-167023 artworks
Henri GascarFrench, 1635-17013 artworks
Benedetto Gennari the YoungerItalian, 1633-171517 artworks
Artemisia GentileschiItalian, 1593-165233 artworks
Orazio GentileschiItalian, 1563-163939 artworks
Luca GiordanoItalian, 1634-1705124 artworks
François GirardonFrench, 1628-171517 artworks
Giovanni Francesco BarbieriItalian, 1591-1666114 artworks
Cornelis Norbertus GysbrechtsBelgian, 1630-168324 artworks
Willem van HaechtBelgian, 1593-16375 artworks
Juan van der HamenSpanish, 1596-163127 artworks
Willem van Herp the ElderBelgian, 1614-167714 artworks
Gerard van HonthorstDutch, 1592-165694 artworks
René-Antoine HouasseFrench, 1645-171040 artworks
Jacob van HulsdonckBelgian, 1582-164721 artworks
Jan Baptist HuysmansBelgian, 1654-17165 artworks
Jacob JordaensBelgian, 1593-167876 artworks
Juan Fernández el LabradorSpanish, 1629-16368 artworks
Laurent de La HyreFrench, 1606-165689 artworks
Christoffel Jacobsz. van der LamenBelgian, 1606-16513 artworks
Giovanni LangettiItalian, 1625-167612 artworks
Nicolas de LargillièreFrench, 1656-174688 artworks
Charles Le BrunFrench, 1619-1690161 artworks
Pierre Ledart IIIFrench, 1628-16981 artwork
Jean LemaireFrench, 1597-165924 artworks
Jean Le MotteFrench, 1653-16855 artworks
Eustache Le SueurFrench, 1617-1655115 artworks
Jacques LinardFrench, 1597-16459 artworks
Johann LissGerman, 1595-163115 artworks
Carstian LuyckxBelgian, 1623-167527 artworks
Dirk MaasDutch, 1659-17171 artwork
Juan Bautista MaínoSpanish, 1581-164922 artworks
Francisco de Burgos MantillaSpanish, 1612-16721 artwork
Carlo MarattaItalian, 1625-171343 artworks
Master of the AcquavellaItalian, 1600-16505 artworks
Henri MauperchéFrench, 1602-168616 artworks
Sebastiano MazzoniItalian, 1611-16784 artworks
Bernardino MeiItalian, 1612-16767 artworks
Nicolas MignardFrench, 1606-16683 artworks
Pierre MignardFrench, 1612-169572 artworks
Louise MoillonFrench, 1609-169622 artworks
Pier Francesco MolaItalian, 1612-166651 artworks
Cristoforo MunariItalian, 1667-17206 artworks
Bartolomé Esteban MurilloSpanish, 1617-1682136 artworks
Marc NattierFrench, 1642-17051 artwork
Pieter Neefs the ElderBelgian, 1578-165617 artworks
Josefa de Ayala y ObidosSpanish, 1630-168415 artworks
Jacob van Oost the ElderBelgian, 1603-167122 artworks
Francisco de PalaciosSpanish, 1623-16521 artwork
Pietro PaoliniItalian, 1603-168114 artworks
Pierre Patel the ElderFrench, 1605-16764 artworks
Clara PeetersBelgian, 1594-165719 artworks
Antonio de PeredaSpanish, 1611-167819 artworks
Antonio PonceSpanish, 1608-16777 artworks
Nicolas PoussinFrench, 1594-1665183 artworks
Andrea PozzoItalian, 1642-17099 artworks
Mattia PretiItalian, 1613-169932 artworks
Felipe RamírezSpanish, 1628-16311 artwork
Giovan Battista ReccoItalian, 1615-16602 artworks
Giuseppe ReccoItalian, 1634-169510 artworks
Nicolas RégnierBelgian, 1591-166724 artworks
Guido ReniItalian, 1575-1642115 artworks
Jusepe de RiberaSpanish, 1591-1652100 artworks
Sebastiano RicciItalian, 1659-1734158 artworks
Salvator RosaItalian, 1615-167398 artworks
Peter Paul RubensBelgian, 1577-1640480 artworks
Antonio del Castillo y SaavedraSpanish, 1616-16686 artworks
Andrea SacchiItalian, 1599-16612 artworks
Carlo SaraceniItalian, 1579-162013 artworks
Giovanni Salvi da SassoferratoItalian, 1609-168559 artworks
Bartolomeo SchedoniItalian, 1578-161518 artworks
Daniel Schultz the YoungerPolish, 1615-16832 artworks
Gerard SeghersBelgian, 1591-165116 artworks
Jan SiberechtsBelgian, 1627-170320 artworks
Frans SnydersBelgian, 1579-165763 artworks
Isaak SoreauGerman, 1604-16447 artworks
Leonello SpadaItalian, 1576-16224 artworks
Massimo StanzioneItalian, 1586-165612 artworks
Hendrick van Steenwijck the YoungerBelgian, 1580-164924 artworks
Matthias StomDutch, 1600-165024 artworks
Sébastien StoskopffGerman, 1597-165717 artworks
Bernardo StrozziItalian, 1581-164471 artworks
Michiel SweertsBelgian, 1618-166450 artworks
David Teniers the YoungerBelgian, 1610-1690242 artworks
Hendrick TerbrugghenDutch, 1588-162951 artworks
Henri TestelinFrench, 1616-16951 artwork
Nicolas TournierFrench, 1590-163915 artworks
Alessandro TurchiItalian, 1578-164936 artworks
French School 18th Century - UnknownFrench, 1700-18006 artworks
Andrea VaccaroItalian, 1604-167021 artworks
Juan de Valdés LealSpanish, 1622-169019 artworks
Abraham-Louis Van LooFrench, 1641-17123 artworks
Jacob Van LooDutch, 1614-167078 artworks
Jean Van LooFrench, 1650-17001 artwork
Ottavio VanniniItalian, 1585-16433 artworks
Gillis van TilborghBelgian, 1625-16789 artworks
Antonio Maria VassalloItalian, 1620-16723 artworks
Diego VelázquezSpanish, 1599-1660139 artworks
Domenico Maria VianiItalian, 1668-17113 artworks
Jacopo VignaliItalian, 1592-16643 artworks
Claude VignonFrench, 1593-167024 artworks
Jacob Ferdinand VoetBelgian, 1639-170018 artworks
Lucas VorstermanDutch, 1595-16751 artwork
Cornelis de VosBelgian, 1584-165123 artworks
Paul de VosBelgian, 1591-167812 artworks
Simon VouetFrench, 1590-164973 artworks
Sebastian VrancxBelgian, 1573-164722 artworks
Tomàs YepesSpanish, 1595-167443 artworks
Francisco de ZurbaránSpanish, 1598-1664107 artworks
Realism
Dates: 1830-1900

Western artists who aimed to depict Nature without artifice or allegory, mostly by painting landscapes and common people at work.

 Artists
Albert AnkerSwiss, 1831-1910213 artworks
Carl BlechenGerman, 1798-184027 artworks
François BonvinFrench, 1817-188745 artworks
Léon BonvinFrench, 1834-186615 artworks
Alejandro CabezaSpanish, 1971-?105 artworks
Dean CornwellAmerican, 1892-196021 artworks
Gustave CourbetFrench, 1819-1877277 artworks
Honoré DaumierFrench, 1808-187972 artworks
Thomas EakinsAmerican, 1844-1916150 artworks
Winslow HomerAmerican, 1836-1910553 artworks
Count Leopold von KalckreuthGerman, 1855-19284 artworks
Wilhelm LeiblGerman, 1844-190018 artworks
Léon Augustin LhermitteFrench, 1844-192580 artworks
Jan MankesDutch, 1889-1920103 artworks
Adolph von MenzelGerman, 1815-1905191 artworks
Peder Mork MønstedDanish, 1859-194177 artworks
Norman RockwellAmerican, 1894-1978283 artworks
James TissotFrench, 1836-1902145 artworks
Wilhelm TrübnerGerman, 1851-1917120 artworks
Fritz von UhdeGerman, 1848-191173 artworks
Pointilism
Dates: 1885-1910
French artists who used discoveries from optical science to paint with "points" of primary colours, without mixing them. From a distant view, the eye cannot see the dots and blends itself the colours, and so the patterns of the painting appear. This breakthrough led to modern painting.
 Artists
Charles AngrandFrench, 1854-192629 artworks
Henri Edmond CrossFrench, 1856-1910157 artworks
Maximilien LuceFrench, 1858-1941453 artworks
Henri MartinFrench, 1860-1943545 artworks
Hippolyte PetitjeanFrench, 1854-192940 artworks
Georges SeuratFrench, 1859-1891144 artworks
Paul SignacFrench, 1863-1935385 artworks
Theo van RysselbergheBelgian, 1862-1926330 artworks
Jan VijlbriefDutch, 1868-18951 artwork
De Stijl
Dates: 1917-1931

Dutch abstract art movement (also influential in architecture) which focused on linear and cubic forms and the use of only the colours black and white and the primary colours red, yellow and blue. Its theoritical fundament is called neoplasticism.

Principal members
  • Theo van Doesburg
  • Piet Mondriaan
  • Vilmos Huszár
  • Bart van der Leck
  • Gerrit Rietveld
  • J.J.P. Oud

 Artists
Burgoyne DillerAmerican, 1906-19653 artworks
Theo van DoesburgDutch, 1883-193111 artworks
Vilmos HuszárHungarian, 1884-19602 artworks
Piet MondrianDutch, 1872-194481 artworks
Georges VantongerlooBelgian, 1886-19651 artwork
Surrealism
Dates: 1924-1970
European literature and visual arts movement. Its members created compositions where elements were painted in a realistic way, with accurate brush strokes, but put together in improbable or grotesque poses in order to represent dreams.
 Artists
Victor BraunerRomanian, 1903-196694 artworks
André BretonFrench, 1896-19661 artwork
Salvador DalìSpanish, 1904-198956 artworks
Giorgio de ChiricoGreek, 1888-197857 artworks
Paul DelvauxBelgian, 1897-199428 artworks
Oscar DominguezSpanish, 1906-195850 artworks
Marcel DuchampFrench, 1887-196811 artworks
Max ErnstGerman, 1891-197652 artworks
H.R. GigerSwiss, 1940-20141 artwork
René MagritteBelgian, 1898-1967319 artworks
Andre MassonFrench, 1896-198744 artworks
Joan MiróSpanish, 1893-198368 artworks
Wolfgang PaalenAustrian, 1905-19596 artworks
Francis PicabiaFrench, 1879-1953415 artworks
Man RayAmerican, 1890-197614 artworks
Kay SageAmerican, 1898-19635 artworks
Jindřich ŠtyrskýCzech, 1899-19424 artworks
Yves TanguyFrench, 1900-195557 artworks
Dorothea TanningGerman, 1910-20121 artwork
Skagen Painters
Dates: 1878-1910
Scandinavian painters who met in the coastal village of Skagen, on the top of Denmark. They followed the French impressionists and painted "en plein air" many bright landscapes and genre scenes, especially fishermen.
 Artists
Anna AncherDanish, 1859-193569 artworks
Michael Peter AncherDanish, 1849-192758 artworks
Christian KrohgDanish, 1852-192516 artworks
Johan KrouthénSwedish, 1858-1932472 artworks
Marie Triepcke KroyerDanish, 1867-19401 artwork
Peder Severin KroyerNorwegian, 1851-190988 artworks
Eilif PeterssenNorwegian, 1852-19286 artworks
Fritz ThaulowNorwegian, 1847-1906152 artworks
Laurits TuxenDanish, 1853-19274 artworks
Old Lyme Colony
Dates: 1900-1915
American impressionist artists, who met in Old Lyme (Connecticut) around Childe Hassam.
 Artists
Gifford BealAmerican, 1879-195639 artworks
Emil CarlsenDanish, 1853-1932172 artworks
William ChadwickAmerican, 1879-196217 artworks
William Howe FooteAmerican, 1874-19655 artworks
Frederick Childe HassamAmerican, 1859-1935695 artworks
Wilson IrvineAmerican, 1869-193635 artworks
Willard Leroy MetcalfAmerican, 1858-1925204 artworks
Henry Ward RangerAmerican, 1858-191621 artworks
Theodore RobinsonAmerican, 1852-1896202 artworks
Chauncey Foster RyderAmerican, 1868-194919 artworks
John TwachtmanAmerican, 1853-1902287 artworks
Clark Greenwood VoorheesAmerican, 1871-193313 artworks
Julian Alden WeirAmerican, 1852-1919148 artworks
Art Nouveau
Dates: 1890-1910
 Artists
Jane AtchéFrench, 1872-19373 artworks
Aubrey BeardsleyEnglish, 1872-189843 artworks
Paul Emile BerthonFrench, 1872-19092 artworks
Jules ChéretFrench, 1836-19328 artworks
Georges de FeureFrench, 1868-192812 artworks
Otto FriedrichAustrian, 1862-19375 artworks
Eugène GrassetSwiss, 1845-19174 artworks
Vojtěch HynaisCzech, 1854-19254 artworks
Gustav KlimtAustrian, 1862-1918160 artworks
Margaret MacDonald1865-19333 artworks
Koloman MoserAustrian, 1869-191891 artworks
Alfons Maria MuchaCzech, 1860-193932 artworks
Alexandre de RiquerSpanish, 1856-192010 artworks
Carl StrathmannGerman, 1866-19391 artwork
Franz von StuckGerman, 1863-192868 artworks
Jan TooropDutch, 1858-192821 artworks
Henri de Toulouse-LautrecFrench, 1864-1901309 artworks
Johann Heinrich VogelerGerman, 1872-194246 artworks
Abstract Expressionism
Dates: 1940-1960
Golden age for abstract artists who had settled in the USA because of the war and where they enjoyed great success. Their works were often large and complex pieces which they painted spontaneously, without preparation.
 Artists
Karel AppelDutch, 1921-200611 artworks
Willi BaumeisterGerman, 1889-195522 artworks
William BaziotesAmerican, 1912-19631 artwork
Arshile GorkyAmerican, 1904-1948145 artworks
Hans HofmannGerman, 1880-19664 artworks
Franz KlineAmerican, 1910-19628 artworks
Irene Rice PereiraAmerican, 1902-19712 artworks
Jackson PollockAmerican, 1912-195616 artworks
Mark RothkoLithuanian, 1903-1970284 artworks
Pre-Raphaelites
Dates: 1848-1910
English painters who shared the goal of the German Nazarenes to create an art deprived from the Greco-Roman classicism which was - according to them - prevalent since Raphael, hence their name. So they used themes taken from British history, such as King Arthur legends and Shakespeare's plays, which they illustrated with vibrant colours and melancholy.
 Artists
John Edward Brett, A.R.A.English, 1830-190279 artworks
Ford Madox BrownEnglish, 1821-189353 artworks
Sir Edward Burne-JonesEnglish, 1833-1898143 artworks
John Maler CollierEnglish, 1850-1934216 artworks
James CollinsonEnglish, 1825-188111 artworks
Evelyn de MorganEnglish, 1855-191956 artworks
Walter Howell DeverellEnglish, 1827-18548 artworks
John Rogers HerbertEnglish, 1810-18901 artwork
Arthur HughesEnglish, 1832-191587 artworks
William Holman HuntEnglish, 1827-191073 artworks
Edmund Blair LeightonEnglish, 1853-192294 artworks
Sir John Everett MillaisEnglish, 1829-1896216 artworks
William MorrisEnglish, 1834-18964 artworks
Christina RossettiEnglish, 1830-1894
Dante Gabriel RossettiEnglish, 1828-1882218 artworks
Anthony Frederick SandysEnglish, 1829-1904113 artworks
Elizabeth SiddalEnglish, 1829-18623 artworks
James SmethamEnglish, 1821-189917 artworks
John Roddam Spencer-StanhopeEnglish, 1829-190815 artworks
Frederic George StephensEnglish, 1838-19075 artworks
Marie Spartali Stillman1844-19279 artworks
Annie SwynnertonEnglish, 1844-19338 artworks
John William WaterhouseEnglish, 1849-191794 artworks
Renaissance
Dates: 1440-1590
Period of fundamental discoveries in arts and science which shaped the modern western world. In painting, artists wanted to depict realistic proportions and colours by taking their inspiration from classical antiquity.
 Artists
Pieter AertsenDutch, 1508-157533 artworks
Alessandro AlloriItalian, 1535-160735 artworks
Albrecht AltdorferGerman, 1480-153833 artworks
Erhard AltdorferGerman, 1480-15622 artworks
Lucia AnguissolaItalian, 1538-15656 artworks
Biagio d'AntonioItalian, 1446-151625 artworks
Jacopo di AntonioItalian, 1427-14544 artworks
Amico AspertiniItalian, 1475-155215 artworks
Il BacchiaccaItalian, 1494-155726 artworks
Alessio BaldovinettiItalian, 1425-14997 artworks
Hans Baldung GrienGerman, 1484-154598 artworks
Jacopo de' BarbariItalian, 1445-151636 artworks
Federico BarocciItalian, 1535-161249 artworks
Marco BasaitiItalian, 1476-153024 artworks
Francesco Bassano the YoungerItalian, 1549-159270 artworks
Girolamo BassanoItalian, 1566-16212 artworks
Jacopo BassanoItalian, 1510-159279 artworks
Leandro BassanoItalian, 1557-162266 artworks
Gentile BelliniItalian, 1429-150728 artworks
Giovanni BelliniItalian, 1430-1516165 artworks
Jacopo BelliniItalian, 1400-147034 artworks
Ambrogio BergognoneItalian, 1453-152311 artworks
Pedro BerrugueteSpanish, 1450-150422 artworks
John Bettes the ElderEnglish, 1531-15703 artworks
Joachim BeuckelaerBelgian, 1534-157437 artworks
Giovanni Francesco BezziItalian, 1549-15714 artworks
Boccaccio BoccaccinoItalian, 1467-15251 artwork
Giovanni Antonio BoltraffioItalian, 1467-151622 artworks
Benedetto BonfigliItalian, 1420-14963 artworks
Paris BordoneItalian, 1500-157161 artworks
Sandro BotticelliItalian, 1445-1510141 artworks
Francesco BotticiniItalian, 1446-149742 artworks
Jean BoulogneBelgian, 1529-160822 artworks
BramanteItalian, 1444-15142 artworks
BramantinoItalian, 1456-153010 artworks
Jörg Breu the ElderGerman, 1475-15375 artworks
Agnolo BronzinoItalian, 1503-1572101 artworks
Bartholomäeus Bruyn the ElderGerman, 1493-155527 artworks
Michelangelo BuonarrotiItalian, 1475-1564168 artworks
Vincenzo CampiItalian, 1536-159110 artworks
Polidoro da CaravaggioItalian, 1497-15436 artworks
Giovanni CarianiItalian, 1485-154737 artworks
Giovanni Francesco CarotoItalian, 1480-15554 artworks
Girolamo da CarpiItalian, 1501-155611 artworks
Andrea del CastagnoItalian, 1421-145714 artworks
Vincenzo CatenaItalian, 1470-153127 artworks
Giambatista Cima da ConeglianoItalian, 1459-151763 artworks
Joos van CleveDutch, 1485-154054 artworks
Franҫois ClouetFrench, 1515-157230 artworks
CorreggioItalian, 1489-1534155 artworks
Piero di CosimoItalian, 1462-152223 artworks
Francesco del CossaItalian, 1430-147716 artworks
Lorenzo Costa the ElderItalian, 1460-153525 artworks
Jean de CourtFrench, 1530-15842 artworks
Lucas Cranach the ElderGerman, 1472-1553153 artworks
Carlo CrivelliItalian, 1430-149534 artworks
Taddeo CrivelliItalian, 1425-14791 artwork
Adriaen van CronenburgDutch, 1525-16043 artworks
Herri Met de BlesBelgian, 1510-15603 artworks
Jean DecourtFrench, 1530-15853 artworks
Neri di BicciItalian, 1419-149114 artworks
Lorenzo di CrediItalian, 1459-15378 artworks
Matteo di Giovanni di BartoloItalian, 1430-149510 artworks
DonatelloItalian, 1386-146627 artworks
Battista DossiItalian, 1490-15484 artworks
Dosso DossiItalian, 1490-154243 artworks
Hans EworthDutch, 1520-157814 artworks
Frans FlorisBelgian, 1516-157012 artworks
Lavinia FontanaItalian, 1552-161445 artworks
Vincenzo FoppaItalian, 1430-151516 artworks
Pier Francesco Jacopo di FoschiItalian, 1502-15677 artworks
Fra AngelicoItalian, 1395-1455146 artworks
Fra BartolommeoItalian, 1472-151719 artworks
Piero della FrancescaItalian, 1415-149215 artworks
Francesco FranciaItalian, 1450-151724 artworks
Il GarofaloItalian, 1481-155962 artworks
Domenico GhirlandaioItalian, 1449-149496 artworks
Niccolò Giolfino the YoungerItalian, 1476-15553 artworks
Francesco di Giorgio MartiniItalian, 1439-150228 artworks
GiorgioneItalian, 1478-151031 artworks
Palma GiovaneItalian, 1544-16289 artworks
Matteo di GiovanniItalian, 1430-149523 artworks
Jan Gossaert (Called Mabuse)Belgian, 1478-153250 artworks
Benozzo GozzoliItalian, 1421-149710 artworks
Matthias GrunewaldGerman, 1470-152818 artworks
Jan Sanders van HemessenDutch, 1500-156612 artworks
Hans Holbein the YoungerGerman, 1497-1543153 artworks
Adriaen IsenbrandtBelgian, 1485-155138 artworks
Neroccio de' LandiItalian, 1447-150011 artworks
Leonardo da VinciItalian, 1452-151943 artworks
Lorenzo LeonbrunoItalian, 1489-15371 artwork
Filippino LippiItalian, 1459-150485 artworks
Fra Filippo LippiItalian, 1406-146969 artworks
Lorenzo LottoItalian, 1480-1557108 artworks
Bernardino LuiniItalian, 1480-153232 artworks
Girolamo MacchiettiItalian, 1535-15924 artworks
Zanobi MachiavelliItalian, 1418-14793 artworks
Pedro MachucaSpanish, 1485-15502 artworks
Hans Maler zu SchwazGerman, 1480-152911 artworks
Jan MandijnDutch, 1500-15603 artworks
Andrea MantegnaItalian, 1431-1506106 artworks
MasaccioItalian, 1401-142822 artworks
Juan Vicente MasipSpanish, 1475-15503 artworks
MasolinoItalian, 1383-144715 artworks
Cornelis MassysBelgian, 1510-15563 artworks
Master of 1518Belgian, 1490-15308 artworks
Filippo MazzolaItalian, 1460-15053 artworks
Melozzo da ForlìItalian, 1438-149412 artworks
Antonello da MessinaItalian, 1430-147927 artworks
Domenico di MichelinoItalian, 1417-14912 artworks
Bartolomeo MontagnaItalian, 1450-152329 artworks
Anthonis MorDutch, 1517-157735 artworks
Moretto da BresciaItalian, 1498-155432 artworks
Giovanni Battista MoroniItalian, 1523-157859 artworks
Jan MostaertDutch, 1472-155518 artworks
Hans MultscherGerman, 1400-14676 artworks
Bernard van OrleyBelgian, 1487-15417 artworks
Lelio OrsiItalian, 1511-15877 artworks
Marco PalmezzanoItalian, 1460-15394 artworks
Giovanni di PaoloItalian, 1398-148239 artworks
ParmigianinoItalian, 1503-154028 artworks
Bartolomeo PassarottiItalian, 1529-159238 artworks
PeruginoItalian, 1446-152394 artworks
Marco PinoItalian, 1521-15837 artworks
PinturicchioItalian, 1454-15139 artworks
Sebastiano del PiomboItalian, 1485-154749 artworks
Antonio del PollaiuoloItalian, 1433-149810 artworks
Piero PollaiuoloItalian, 1441-149612 artworks
Jacopo PontormoItalian, 1494-155745 artworks
Pieter PourbusBelgian, 1523-158429 artworks
Giovanni Ambrogio de PredisItalian, 1455-150814 artworks
Scipione PulzoneItalian, 1542-15988 artworks
RaphaelItalian, 1483-1520195 artworks
Ercole de' RobertiItalian, 1451-149618 artworks
Girolamo RomaniItalian, 1485-15662 artworks
Gerolamo RomaninoItalian, 1485-156620 artworks
Antoniazzo RomanoItalian, 1430-151012 artworks
Giulio RomanoItalian, 1499-154611 artworks
Cosimo RosselliItalian, 1439-150724 artworks
Rosso FiorentinoItalian, 1494-154018 artworks
Francesco SalviatiItalian, 1510-156321 artworks
Giuliano da SangalloItalian, 1445-15161 artwork
Andrea del SartoItalian, 1486-153025 artworks
Giovanni Girolamo SavoldoItalian, 1480-15489 artworks
Andrea SchiavoneItalian, 1512-156311 artworks
Jacob SeiseneggerAustrian, 1505-15675 artworks
Jacopo da SellaioItalian, 1442-149326 artworks
Luca SignorelliItalian, 1445-152362 artworks
Andrea SolarioItalian, 1465-152423 artworks
Bartholomaeus SprangerDutch, 1546-161125 artworks
Isaac Claesz van SwanenburgDutch, 1537-16245 artworks
Domenico TintorettoItalian, 1560-163516 artworks
Jacopo TintorettoItalian, 1518-1594211 artworks
TitianItalian, 1488-1576279 artworks
Michele TosiniItalian, 1503-157712 artworks
Girolamo da Travis the YoungerItalian, 1497-15444 artworks
Cosmè TuraItalian, 1430-149527 artworks
Paolo UccelloItalian, 1397-147513 artworks
Perino del VagaItalian, 1501-15478 artworks
Jacopo Palma il VecchioItalian, 1480-152847 artworks
Bartolomeo VenetoItalian, 1480-154637 artworks
Domenico VenezianoItalian, 1410-146118 artworks
Bonifazio VeroneseItalian, 1487-155315 artworks
Paolo VeroneseItalian, 1528-1588545 artworks
Andrea del VerrocchioItalian, 1435-148829 artworks
Alvise VivariniItalian, 1442-150310 artworks
Antonio VivariniItalian, 1410-148017 artworks
Bartolommeo VivariniItalian, 1432-149917 artworks
Daniele da VolterraItalian, 1509-15665 artworks
Joos van WingheBelgian, 1544-16032 artworks
Francesco di Bosio ZaganelliItalian, 1470-15327 artworks
Marco ZoppoItalian, 1433-14789 artworks
Academism
Dates: 1850-1910
Artists sponsored by the State who focused on historical and mythological themes, with many nude allegories, or idealized genre scenes in order to represent the perfect beauty in art. The style was a sort of synthesis of the previous official art movements, especially Romanticism and Neoclassicism.
 Artists
Louis-Emile AdanFrench, 1839-193712 artworks
Alfred-Pierre AgacheFrench, 1843-19153 artworks
Laura Theresa Alma-Tadema1852-19097 artworks
Sir Lawrence Alma-TademaDutch, 1836-1912231 artworks
Abbey Altson1866-194932 artworks
Eugène-Emmanuel Amaury-DuvalFrench, 1808-188515 artworks
Friedrich von AmerlingAustrian, 1803-188794 artworks
Edward Armitage1817-189627 artworks
Stefan BakalowiczPolish, 1857-194730 artworks
Paul BaudryFrench, 1828-18863 artworks
François-Léon BenouvilleFrench, 1821-185912 artworks
Ernst BergerAustrian, 1857-19191 artwork
Edouard BissonFrench, 1856-19394 artworks
Eugene de BlaasItalian, 1843-1932153 artworks
Léon Joseph Florentin BonnatFrench, 1833-192255 artworks
Pierre-Louis BouchardFrench, 1831-18891 artwork
Elizabeth Jane Gardner BouguereauAmerican, 1837-19228 artworks
William BouguereauFrench, 1825-1905445 artworks
Charles Edouard BoutibonneFrench, 1816-189711 artworks
Eugen Felix Prosper BrachtGerman, 1842-192141 artworks
Anton BraithGerman, 1836-19056 artworks
Alexandre CabanelFrench, 1823-188972 artworks
Alejandro CabezaSpanish, 1971-?105 artworks
Joseph CaraudFrench, 1821-190539 artworks
Charles Auguste Emile Carolus-DuranFrench, 1838-191785 artworks
Paul Emile ChabasFrench, 1869-19379 artworks
Charles ChaplinFrench, 1825-189143 artworks
Georges Jules Victor ClairinFrench, 1843-191922 artworks
Louis-Joseph-Raphael CollinFrench, 1850-191610 artworks
Léon-François ComerreFrench, 1850-191619 artworks
Tito ContiItalian, 1842-192413 artworks
Charles West CopeEnglish, 1811-189042 artworks
Fernand CormonFrench, 1845-19249 artworks
Pierre-Auguste CotFrench, 1837-18838 artworks
Gustave CourtoisFrench, 1852-19232 artworks
Thomas CoutureFrench, 1815-187928 artworks
Władysław CzachórskiPolish, 1850-191137 artworks
Pascal Dagnan-BouveretFrench, 1852-192949 artworks
Henri-Camille DangerFrench, 1857-19376 artworks
Edouard-Joseph DantanFrench, 1848-18975 artworks
Henri DelabordeFrench, 1811-18992 artworks
Paul DelarocheFrench, 1797-185627 artworks
Jules-Élie DelaunayFrench, 1828-18912 artworks
Francois Alfred DelobbeFrench, 1835-19205 artworks
Cesare Augusto DettiItalian, 1847-191438 artworks
Emil DoerstlingGerman, 1859-19402 artworks
Gustave DoyenFrench, 1837-?6 artworks
Herbert James DraperEnglish, 1864-192055 artworks
Emile Eisman-SemenowskyPolish, 1857-191195 artworks
Erasmus EngertAustrian, 1796-18711 artwork
Delphin EnjolrasFrench, 1857-1945184 artworks
Rudolf ErnstAustrian, 1854-193243 artworks
Léon Maxime FaivreFrench, 1856-19145 artworks
Luis FaleroSpanish, 1851-189628 artworks
Benjamin Eugene FichelFrench, 1826-18958 artworks
Albert Auguste FourieFrench, 1854-19373 artworks
Juan Jose Gárate y ClaveroSpanish, 1869-19391 artwork
Jules-Arsène GarnierFrench, 1847-18891 artwork
Carl GehrtsGerman, 1853-18981 artwork
Théodore GérardBelgian, 1829-189535 artworks
Jean-Léon GérômeFrench, 1824-1904239 artworks
Paul GervaisFrench, 1859-19342 artworks
Henri GervexFrench, 1852-192917 artworks
Victor Gabriel GilbertFrench, 1847-1933116 artworks
Jules GirardetFrench, 1856-193818 artworks
Henry Gillard Glindoni1852-191314 artworks
John William GodwardEnglish, 1861-1922262 artworks
Ernest HébertFrench, 1817-19081 artwork
Jean-Jacques HennerFrench, 1829-1905400 artworks
Hubert von HerkomerEnglish, 1849-19144 artworks
August von HeydenGerman, 1827-18971 artwork
Julius HübnerGerman, 1806-18822 artworks
Vojtěch HynaisCzech, 1854-19254 artworks
Gustave Jean JacquetFrench, 1846-190939 artworks
Paul JaminFrench, 1853-19032 artworks
Peter JanssenGerman, 1844-19085 artworks
Jose Jimenez y ArandaSpanish, 1837-190329 artworks
Frank KirchbachGerman, 1859-19121 artwork
Julius KleverRussian, 1850-1924119 artworks
Gotthardt KuehlGerman, 1850-19155 artworks
Adolphe la LyreFrench, 1850-19355 artworks
Charles Zacherie LandelleFrench, 1812-190810 artworks
Sir Edwin LandseerEnglish, 1802-1873165 artworks
Jean-Paul LaurensFrench, 1838-19217 artworks
Jean-Jules-Antoine Lecomte du NouÿFrench, 1842-192314 artworks
Jules Joseph LefebvreFrench, 1836-191158 artworks
Edmund Blair LeightonEnglish, 1853-192294 artworks
Sir Frederic Lord LeightonEnglish, 1830-1896229 artworks
Alexander Louis LeloirFrench, 1843-18847 artworks
Jules Eugène LenepveuFrench, 1819-18981 artwork
Charles-Amable LenoirFrench, 1861-19409 artworks
Henri Léopold LévyFrench, 1840-19044 artworks
John Arthur Lomax1857-192315 artworks
Gabriel Cornelius Ritter von MaxCzech, 1840-191529 artworks
Hugues MerleFrench, 1823-188117 artworks
Albert Joseph Moore, A.R.W.S.English, 1841-189356 artworks
Frederick MorganEnglish, 1847-192736 artworks
Aime-Nicolas MorotFrench, 1850-19134 artworks
Henri-Paul MotteFrench, 1846-19222 artworks
Ernest Normand1857-192313 artworks
Sir William Quiller OrchardsonEnglish, 1832-191092 artworks
Antonio PaolettiItalian, 1833-19127 artworks
Georg PapperitzGerman, 1846-19186 artworks
Leon-Jean-Basile PerraultFrench, 1832-190821 artworks
Henri-Félix-Emmanuel PhilippoteauxFrench, 1818-18844 artworks
Henri Pierre PicouFrench, 1824-189515 artworks
Ferdinand von PilotyGerman, 1828-18954 artworks
Sir Edward John PoynterEnglish, 1836-191970 artworks
René-François-Xavier PrinetFrench, 1861-19463 artworks
Henrietta Rae-NormandEnglish, 1859-19286 artworks
Theodoros RalliGreek, 1852-190935 artworks
Henri RegnaultFrench, 1843-18715 artworks
Pio RicciItalian, 1850-191929 artworks
Briton RiviereEnglish, 1840-192057 artworks
Edwin Thomas Roberts1840-191740 artworks
Georges Antoine RochegrosseFrench, 1859-193837 artworks
Alexander Mark Rossi1840-191642 artworks
Lionel-Noël RoyerFrench, 1852-19261 artwork
Jules ScalbertFrench, 1851-19288 artworks
Eduard SchleichGerman, 1812-18742 artworks
Henri-Guillaume SchlesingerFrench, 1814-18938 artworks
Moritz von SchwindAustrian, 1804-18713 artworks
Guillaume SeignacFrench, 1870-192463 artworks
Paul SieffertFrench, 1874-19578 artworks
Hendryk SiemiradzkiPolish, 1843-190274 artworks
Henryk SiemiradzkiPolish, 1843-1902
Solomon Joseph SolomonEnglish, 1860-19275 artworks
Charles Joseph Frederick SoulacroixFrench, 1825-187955 artworks
Joseph Karl StielerGerman, 1781-185865 artworks
Nikolai SverchkovRussian, 1817-1898121 artworks
Henri Adrien TanouxFrench, 1865-192320 artworks
Eugène Romain ThirionFrench, 1839-19192 artworks
Hans ThomaGerman, 1839-1924137 artworks
Edoardo TofanoItalian, 1838-19204 artworks
Auguste ToulmoucheFrench, 1829-189044 artworks
Benjamin VautierSwiss, 1829-18987 artworks
Emile VernonFrench, 1872-191957 artworks
Jehan-Georges VibertFrench, 1840-190253 artworks
Sándor von WagnerHungarian, 1838-19191 artwork
Ferdinand Georg WaldmüllerAustrian, 1793-1865146 artworks
John William WaterhouseEnglish, 1849-191794 artworks
Jean-Joseph WeertsFrench, 1847-19271 artwork
Charles WildaAustrian, 1854-19072 artworks
William Clarke WontnerEnglish, 1857-193027 artworks
Eduardo Zamacois y ZabalaSpanish, 1841-18712 artworks
Fritz Zuber-BuhlerSwiss, 1822-189653 artworks
Nazarene
Dates: 1809-1850

German Romantic painters settled in Rome who regarded the art since 1500 as degenerate and pagan. They favoured instead works produced during the Early Renaissance; so their paintings looks deliberately old-fashioned, with a focus on Christian and German subjects.

 Artists
Peter von CorneliusGerman, 1783-18678 artworks
Marie EllenriederGerman, 1791-186334 artworks
Joseph von FührichCzech, 1800-18764 artworks
Heinrich Maria von HessGerman, 1798-18632 artworks
Franz IttenbachGerman, 1813-18799 artworks
Ferdinand OlivierGerman, 1785-18411 artwork
Johann Friedrich OverbeckGerman, 1789-186914 artworks
Franz PforrGerman, 1788-18125 artworks
Julius Schnorr von CarolsfeldGerman, 1794-187223 artworks
Ludwig Schnorr von CarolsfeldGerman, 1788-18532 artworks
Philipp VeitGerman, 1793-18779 artworks
Impressionism
Dates: 1863-1920

French artists who painted in 'plein-air', with bright and unmixed colours and slightly apparent brush strokes, in order to give a better rendering of light. The movement then extended to the other Western countries, notably the USA.

 Artists
John Ottis AdamsAmerican, 1851-192756 artworks
Anna AncherDanish, 1859-193569 artworks
Michael Peter AncherDanish, 1849-192758 artworks
Harriet BackerNorwegian, 1845-193228 artworks
Lucy BaconAmerican, 1858-19322 artworks
Laureano BarrauSpanish, 1863-195731 artworks
Jean Frederic BazilleFrench, 1841-187050 artworks
Reynolds BealAmerican, 1867-195139 artworks
Frank W. BensonAmerican, 1862-1951144 artworks
Eugène-Louis BoudinFrench, 1824-18981158 artworks
Olga BoznańskaPolish, 1865-1940157 artworks
George Hendrik BreitnerDutch, 1857-1923107 artworks
Matilda BrowneAmerican, 1869-19474 artworks
John Elwood BundyAmerican, 1853-193321 artworks
Dennis Miller BunkerAmerican, 1861-189057 artworks
Theodore Earl ButlerAmerican, 1861-193676 artworks
Alejandro CabezaSpanish, 1971-?105 artworks
Gustave CaillebotteFrench, 1848-1894253 artworks
Ignacio Pinazo CamarlenchSpanish, 1849-1916177 artworks
Mary CassattAmerican, 1844-1926347 artworks
William ChadwickAmerican, 1879-196217 artworks
William Merritt ChaseAmerican, 1849-1916650 artworks
Alson Skinner ClarkAmerican, 1876-1949124 artworks
Colin Campbell CooperAmerican, 1856-1937102 artworks
Lovis CorinthGerman, 1858-1925292 artworks
Paul CornoyerAmerican, 1864-192344 artworks
Edgar DegasFrench, 1834-1917680 artworks
Giuseppe de NittisItalian, 1846-188473 artworks
Frank Vincent DuMondAmerican, 1865-195111 artworks
John Joseph EnnekingAmerican, 1841-191670 artworks
Karoly FerenczyHungarian, 1862-19177 artworks
William Howe FooteAmerican, 1874-19655 artworks
Frederick Carl FriesekeAmerican, 1874-1939317 artworks
Daniel GarberAmerican, 1880-195872 artworks
Eva GonzalesFrench, 1849-188346 artworks
Edmund W. GreacenAmerican, 1876-194931 artworks
Richard B. GruelleAmerican, 1851-19142 artworks
Armand GuillauminFrench, 1841-1927483 artworks
Frederick Childe HassamAmerican, 1859-1935695 artworks
Ludwig von HofmannGerman, 1861-19457 artworks
Blanche Hoschedé-MonetFrench, 1865-194737 artworks
Wilson IrvineAmerican, 1869-193635 artworks
Johan Barthold JongkindDutch, 1819-1892130 artworks
Charles Salis KaelinAmerican, 1858-192922 artworks
Joseph KleitschAmerican, 1882-1931165 artworks
Alexander KoesterGerman, 1864-193231 artworks
Christian KrohgDanish, 1852-192516 artworks
Johan KrouthénSwedish, 1858-1932472 artworks
Marie Triepcke KroyerDanish, 1867-19401 artwork
Peder Severin KroyerNorwegian, 1851-190988 artworks
William Langson LathropAmerican, 1859-193855 artworks
Albert LebourgFrench, 1849-1928226 artworks
Stanislas LépineFrench, 1835-189299 artworks
Richard Haley LeverAustralian, 1876-1958121 artworks
Max LiebermannGerman, 1847-1935237 artworks
Elmer Livingston MacRaeAmerican, 1875-195315 artworks
Édouard ManetFrench, 1832-1883261 artworks
Willard Leroy MetcalfAmerican, 1858-1925204 artworks
Claude Oscar MonetFrench, 1840-19261272 artworks
Adolphe-Joseph-Thomas MonticelliFrench, 1824-1886123 artworks
Berthe MorisotFrench, 1841-1895300 artworks
George NoyesAmerican, 1864-195413 artworks
Frank NuderscherAmerican, 1880-19593 artworks
Leonard OchtmanAmerican, 1854-193523 artworks
Mina Fonda OchtmanAmerican, 1862-19241 artwork
Julian OnderdonkAmerican, 1882-1922189 artworks
Ernst OpplerGerman, 1867-19292 artworks
Walter Frederick OsborneIrish, 1859-190336 artworks
William MacGregor PaxtonAmerican, 1869-1941111 artworks
Lilla Cabot PerryAmerican, 1848-193388 artworks
Eilif PeterssenNorwegian, 1852-19286 artworks
Theodor PhilipsenDanish, 1840-19202 artworks
Camille PissarroFrench, 1830-19031090 artworks
Edward PotthastAmerican, 1857-1927299 artworks
Leo PutzGerman, 1869-194089 artworks
Henry Ward RangerAmerican, 1858-191621 artworks
Edward Willis RedfieldAmerican, 1869-1965104 artworks
Robert Lewis ReidAmerican, 1862-192983 artworks
Pierre Auguste RenoirFrench, 1841-19191673 artworks
Theodore RobinsonAmerican, 1852-1896202 artworks
Guy Orlando RoseAmerican, 1867-1925144 artworks
John Singer SargentAmerican, 1856-19251505 artworks
Paul SawyierAmerican, 1865-191715 artworks
Valentin SerovRussian, 1865-1911128 artworks
Edward E. SimmonsAmerican, 1852-193118 artworks
Alfred SisleyFrench, 1839-1899645 artworks
Max SlevogtGerman, 1868-193252 artworks
Henry B. SnellAmerican, 1858-194317 artworks
Joaquin Sorolla y BastidaSpanish, 1863-1923575 artworks
George W. SotterAmerican, 1878-195317 artworks
Otto StarkAmerican, 1859-192612 artworks
Theodore Clement SteeleAmerican, 1847-192693 artworks
Jane SutherlandAustralian, 1853-192813 artworks
Edmund TarbellAmerican, 1862-1938132 artworks
Fritz ThaulowNorwegian, 1847-1906152 artworks
James TissotFrench, 1836-1902145 artworks
Henri de Toulouse-LautrecFrench, 1864-1901309 artworks
Laurits TuxenDanish, 1853-19274 artworks
John TwachtmanAmerican, 1853-1902287 artworks
Fritz von UhdeGerman, 1848-191173 artworks
Lesser UryGerman, 1861-1931148 artworks
Robert VonnohAmerican, 1858-193363 artworks
Clark Greenwood VoorheesAmerican, 1871-193313 artworks
Elmer WachtelAmerican, 1864-192919 artworks
Marion Kavanaugh (Wachtel)American, 1875-195411 artworks
Julian Alden WeirAmerican, 1852-1919148 artworks
Albert WeisgerberGerman, 1878-19153 artworks
James Abbott McNeill WhistlerAmerican, 1834-1903314 artworks
Federico ZandomeneghiItalian, 1841-1917108 artworks
Abstract art
Dates: 1914-1960

Art movement issued from Expressionism which aimed to abandon figurative art in favour of abstraction. Their compositions therefore represent colourful geometric shapes.

 Artists
Willi BaumeisterGerman, 1889-195522 artworks
William BaziotesAmerican, 1912-19631 artwork
Patrick Henry BruceAmerican, 1881-193638 artworks
Ilya ChashnikRussian, 1902-19297 artworks
Stuart DavisAmerican, 1892-1964154 artworks
Robert DelaunayFrench, 1885-1941110 artworks
Burgoyne DillerAmerican, 1906-19653 artworks
Theo van DoesburgDutch, 1883-193111 artworks
Arthur DoveAmerican, 1880-1946143 artworks
Werner DrewesGerman, 1899-19653 artworks
Arshile GorkyAmerican, 1904-1948145 artworks
Auguste HerbinFrench, 1882-1960193 artworks
Ivon HitchensEnglish, 1893-197979 artworks
Hans HofmannGerman, 1880-19664 artworks
Vilmos HuszárHungarian, 1884-19602 artworks
Mainie JellettIrish, 1897-194464 artworks
Wassily KandinskyRussian, 1866-1944336 artworks
Franz KlineAmerican, 1910-19628 artworks
Ivan KliunRussian, 1873-19434 artworks
František KupkaCzech, 1871-1957126 artworks
Marie LaurencinFrench, 1883-1956295 artworks
Stanton Macdonald-WrightAmerican, 1890-197314 artworks
Kasimir MalevichRussian, 1878-1935118 artworks
Alice Trumbull MasonAmerican, 1904-19711 artwork
László Moholy-NagyHungarian, 1895-194638 artworks
Piet MondrianDutch, 1872-194481 artworks
Ben NicholsonEnglish, 1894-1982152 artworks
Irene Rice PereiraAmerican, 1902-19712 artworks
John PiperEnglish, 1903-1992108 artworks
Jackson PollockAmerican, 1912-195616 artworks
Liubov PopovaRussian, 1889-192475 artworks
Alfred RethHungarian, 1884-196617 artworks
Mark RothkoLithuanian, 1903-1970284 artworks
Olga RozanovaRussian, 1886-19183 artworks
Kurt SchwittersGerman, 1887-194856 artworks
Nikolai SuetinRussian, 1897-19542 artworks
Sophie Taeuber-ArpSwiss, 1889-19435 artworks
Leon Arthur TutundjianArmenian, 1905-19683 artworks
Sam VanniFinnish, 1908-19923 artworks
Georges VantongerlooBelgian, 1886-19651 artwork
Friedrich Vordemberge-GildewartGerman, 1897-19632 artworks
Futurism
Dates: 1909-1944

Italian movement, which also spread to Russia. Both groups tried to urge the modernisation of their archaic country by glorifying technology, speed, machinery and even violence. These ideas led some futurists to support Fascism.

 Artists
Giacomo BallaItalian, 1871-195859 artworks
Umberto BoccioniItalian, 1882-191632 artworks
David Davidovich BurliukRussian, 1882-196793 artworks
Benedetta Cappa MarinettiItalian, 1897-197710 artworks
Carlo CarràItalian, 1881-196628 artworks
Tullio CraliItalian, 1910-20006 artworks
Fortunato DeperoItalian, 1892-19601 artwork
Natalia GoncharovaRussian, 1881-1962126 artworks
Mikhail Fedorovich LarionovRussian, 1881-196452 artworks
Liubov PopovaRussian, 1889-192475 artworks
Luigi RussoloItalian, 1883-19474 artworks
Gino SeveriniItalian, 1883-196648 artworks
Mario SironiItalian, 1885-196114 artworks
Ardengo SofficiItalian, 1879-19641 artwork
Mannerism
Dates: 1520-1600

The last stage of the Renaissance. Artists painted complex works, with distorted characters in uncomfortable poses.

The period was dominated by the Florentine school of Parmigianino, Bronzino and Rosso Fiorentino, then the Venetian school of Titian, Veronese and Tintoretto.

Mannerism also spread to France, with the School of Fontainebleau, and to the Low Countries, where it was called Northern Mannerism.

 Artists
Hans von AachenGerman, 1552-161547 artworks
Niccolò dell' AbbateItalian, 1509-157118 artworks
Alessandro AlloriItalian, 1535-160735 artworks
Lucia AnguissolaItalian, 1538-15656 artworks
Sofonisba AnguissolaItalian, 1532-162536 artworks
Giuseppe ArcimboldoItalian, 1527-159375 artworks
Il BacchiaccaItalian, 1494-155726 artworks
Federico BarocciItalian, 1535-161249 artworks
Francesco Bassano the YoungerItalian, 1549-159270 artworks
Girolamo BassanoItalian, 1566-16212 artworks
Jacopo BassanoItalian, 1510-159279 artworks
Leandro BassanoItalian, 1557-162266 artworks
Domenico BeccafumiItalian, 1484-155133 artworks
Giovanni Francesco BezziItalian, 1549-15714 artworks
Jean BoulogneBelgian, 1529-160822 artworks
Agnolo BronzinoItalian, 1503-1572101 artworks
Vincenzo CampiItalian, 1536-159110 artworks
Polidoro da CaravaggioItalian, 1497-15436 artworks
El GrecoGreek, 1541-1614196 artworks
Lavinia FontanaItalian, 1552-161445 artworks
Pier Francesco Jacopo di FoschiItalian, 1502-15677 artworks
Palma GiovaneItalian, 1544-16289 artworks
Hendrick GoltziusDutch, 1558-161730 artworks
Girolamo MacchiettiItalian, 1535-15924 artworks
Giovanni Battista MoroniItalian, 1523-157859 artworks
Lelio OrsiItalian, 1511-15877 artworks
ParmigianinoItalian, 1503-154028 artworks
Bartolomeo PassarottiItalian, 1529-159238 artworks
Marco PinoItalian, 1521-15837 artworks
Jacopo PontormoItalian, 1494-155745 artworks
Carlo Portelli da LoroItalian, 1510-15742 artworks
Scipione PulzoneItalian, 1542-15988 artworks
Rosso FiorentinoItalian, 1494-154018 artworks
Francesco SalviatiItalian, 1510-156321 artworks
Andrea SchiavoneItalian, 1512-156311 artworks
Bartholomaeus SprangerDutch, 1546-161125 artworks
Domenico TintorettoItalian, 1560-163516 artworks
Jacopo TintorettoItalian, 1518-1594211 artworks
Michele TosiniItalian, 1503-157712 artworks
Perino del VagaItalian, 1501-15478 artworks
Paolo VeroneseItalian, 1528-1588545 artworks
Daniele da VolterraItalian, 1509-15665 artworks
Maarten de VosDutch, 1552-160311 artworks
Joos van WingheBelgian, 1544-16032 artworks
Post-Impressionism
Dates: 1885-1914
Art movement from the 1880s to the First World War which extended and exaggerated the themes of Impressionism.
 Artists
Charles AngrandFrench, 1854-192629 artworks
Robert BevanEnglish, 1865-192589 artworks
Pierre BonnardFrench, 1867-1947766 artworks
Paul CézanneFrench, 1839-1906591 artworks
Henri Edmond CrossFrench, 1856-1910157 artworks
Malcolm DrummondEnglish, 1880-194532 artworks
Paul GauguinFrench, 1848-1903568 artworks
Harold GilmanEnglish, 1876-191971 artworks
Charles Ginner1878-195289 artworks
Vincent van GoghDutch, 1853-1890913 artworks
Spencer GoreEnglish, 1878-191492 artworks
James Dickson Innes1887-1914161 artworks
Moise KislingPolish, 1891-1953446 artworks
Henry LambEnglish, 1883-1960147 artworks
Henri LebasqueFrench, 1865-1937644 artworks
Gustave LoiseauFrench, 1865-1935599 artworks
Maximilien LuceFrench, 1858-1941453 artworks
Aristide MaillolFrench, 1861-1944109 artworks
James Bolivar Manson1879-194543 artworks
Hippolyte PetitjeanFrench, 1854-192940 artworks
Camille PissarroFrench, 1830-19031090 artworks
Lucien PissarroFrench, 1863-194423 artworks
Maurice PrendergastCanadian, 1858-1924438 artworks
William RatcliffeEnglish, 1882-196330 artworks
Henri RousseauFrench, 1855-1910119 artworks
Georges SeuratFrench, 1859-1891144 artworks
Walter Richard SickertGerman, 1860-1942248 artworks
Paul SignacFrench, 1863-1935385 artworks
Henri de Toulouse-LautrecFrench, 1864-1901309 artworks
Theo van RysselbergheBelgian, 1862-1926330 artworks
Jan VerkadeDutch, 1868-19463 artworks
Jan VijlbriefDutch, 1868-18951 artwork
Edouard VuillardFrench, 1868-1940698 artworks
Rococo
Dates: 1710-1780

The Rococo style dominated the arts, architecture and design during the reign of Louis XV of France (1715-1774); it started in France and Italy, then expanded to most of Europe.

1. Watteau and his fêtes galantes (1710-1730)

Commonly accepted as the creator of the movement, Jean-Antoine Watteau designed a new kind of genre scene, named fêtes galantes, which represented young couples dancing or making music in parks, with a coy eroticism. Watteau immediately gained success among the nobility, especially after the death of King Louis XIV, who had imposed a devout morality in the Court at the end of his reign. By now, freed from the watchful eye of the King, the aristocrats - led by the Regent - looked for happiness and pleasure, as depicted by Watteau. For the first time in modern history, art was made only to please, whereas previous movements were charged with a Christian morality of repentance or austerity. This new paradigm flourished under Rococo, which was the expression of the libertine spirit in painting.

Watteau and his main followers Pater and Lancret represented the first stage of the style, which lasted until the 1730s.

Pilgrimage to Cythera by Watteau (Left) and The Swing by Pater (right)

2. Boucher and the golden age of Rococo (1730-1760)

The golden age of Rococo started with the maturity of the artists born in the 1700s, such as Carle Van Loo, Natoire, and Boucher, the most famous painter of the style. The sketched eroticism of Watteau now became apparent. Indeed, following the path of Lemoyne and Jean Raoux, their subjects taken from the Greco-Roman mythology were principally a pretext to show depictions of passionate love (with the subject of Venus and Adonis) or nudity (with countless representations of Venus and Artemis), which they highlighted with bright and warm colours, and a luxurious vegetation made of flowers and grapes.

Venus and Adonis by Natoire (left), Diana Bathing by Boucher (centre) and The Rape of Europa by Noël-Nicolas Coypel (right).

Apart from their mythological scenes, which were included under the title of "history" painting, they made numerous pastorales - genre scenes of lovers in the countryside - and humoristic compositions with fat and naughty putti (little cupids). These artworks served as decorative panels, especially as dessus-de-porte (above the door), in royal or noble palaces.

Pastorale (left), Love's Target (centre) by Boucher, Cupid and his Troops by Carle Van Loo (right).

In France, these artists were largely patronized by Madame de Pompadour, the official mistress of Louis XV, who bought many pieces to embellish the palaces of Versailles and Marly (destroyed by Napoleon). They also looked abroad to sell their artworks, notably to Frederick II of Prussia and Augustus III of Saxony, who battled to get their best paintings.

On the other hand, Spanish monarchs preferred to call Italian painters directly to their Court, due to the lack of good painters in the country at the time. Thus, Amigoni, Giaquinto and Tiepolo crossed the sea to work in Madrid, where they produced numerous frescos and large canvas for Spanish palaces. However, Italian Rococo was more a continuation of Baroque - with some innovations - than a break from the Baroque style as pronounced as in France, since its members remained mostly focused on biblical subjects and painted with less frivolity than their French counterparts.

Flora and Zephyr by Amigoni (left), Sunrise with The Triumph of Bacchus by Giaquinto (centre) and Study for Allegory of the Planets and Continents by Tiepolo (right)

Lesser patrons essentially commissioned their own portraits, as prices had reduced thanks to the diffusion of pastel, which also shortened the time of production. Since the triumphal journey made in France by the Venetian Rosalba Carreira in 1720, the prevalent type in portraiture was to idealize the sitter, or to represent him in the guise of divinities or allegories. Her most famous followers were Quentin de la Tour and Perronneau. Oil portrait painters also followed in her steps; the most successful in France being Nattier, who painted all the French aristocracy under the traits of allegorical characters.

Portrait of a Woman with a Mask by Rosalba Madame de Pompadour as Diana by Nattier

Portrait of a Woman with a Mask by Rosalba (Left), Portrait of Magdalene Pinceloup de la Grange by Perronneau (centre) and Portrait of Madame de Pompadour as Diana by Nattier (right).

3. Fragonard (1760-1780)

Finally, the last stage of Rococo (1760-1780) was dominated by Fragonard and his followers Lafrensen, Trinquesse, Baudouin and Schall, who painted with an easy brush stroke which gave to their works an unfinished aspect. They were smaller in size in order to be easier to engrave and exhibit in private cabinets. Indeed, many of these works were too explicit to be shown to the public, although engravers widely spread their reproductions. Incidentally, Fragonard remained outside of the French Academy and Salon.

The Lock The Match to Powderkeg by Fragonard

The Lock (left), The Match to Powderkeg (centre) and The Lover Crowned (right) by Fragonard.

The Three Graces (left), Young Lady in a Garden (centre) by Schall, and Night (right) by Baudouin.

The Rococo style came to an end in the 1780s due to its frivolousness and it appeared as a symbol of the aristocratic decadence and corruption. The rising bourgeoisie favoured instead the severe neoclassical style embodied by David, which triumphed with the French Revolution. Besides, the pejorative term of "Rococo" is said to have been coined by Quays, who was perhaps the most resolute proponent of Neoclassicism.

Nevertheless, even at its climax, the movement was never completely dominant, since several painters - lead by Chardin and Oudry - pursued the Dutch realist tradition. However, the movement did not have much influence on English painters, with the possible exception of some of Hogarth's output.

 Artists
Jacopo AmigoniItalian, 1682-175261 artworks
Ivan ArgunovRussian, 1729-180216 artworks
Étienne AubryFrench, 1745-17815 artworks
Antonio BalestraItalian, 1666-174021 artworks
Pierre Antoine BaudouinFrench, 1723-17699 artworks
Louis Gabriel BlanchetFrench, 1705-17727 artworks
Giuseppe BonitoItalian, 1707-178934 artworks
François BoucherFrench, 1703-1770680 artworks
Rosalba CarrieraItalian, 1675-1757128 artworks
Andrea CasaliItalian, 1705-178419 artworks
Pierre-Jacques CazesFrench, 1676-17549 artworks
Charles-Michel-Ange ChalleFrench, 1718-177813 artworks
Giovanni Battista CiprianiItalian, 1727-17859 artworks
Jacques CourtinFrench, 1672-17523 artworks
Charles-Antoine Coypel IVFrench, 1694-1752132 artworks
Noël-Nicolas Coypel IIIFrench, 1690-173427 artworks
Donato CretiItalian, 1671-174916 artworks
Maurice Quentin de La TourFrench, 1704-17889 artworks
Jean-Baptiste Deshays de CollevilleFrench, 1729-176517 artworks
George DesmaréesSwedish, 1697-17761 artwork
Gaspare DizianiItalian, 1689-176744 artworks
François-Hubert DrouaisFrench, 1727-177565 artworks
Jean-Honore FragonardFrench, 1732-1806166 artworks
Corrado GiaquintoItalian, 1703-1766118 artworks
Francisco Jose de Goya y LucientesSpanish, 1746-1828218 artworks
Jean-Baptiste GreuzeFrench, 1725-1805180 artworks
Noel HalléFrench, 1711-178118 artworks
Francis Hayman1708-176665 artworks
William HogarthEnglish, 1697-1764117 artworks
Niklas LafrensenSwedish, 1737-18073 artworks
Nicolas LancretFrench, 1690-174336 artworks
Sébastien-Jacques LeclercFrench, 1734-178510 artworks
Pierre-Charles Le MettayFrench, 1726-17595 artworks
Franҫois LemoyneFrench, 1688-173723 artworks
Jean-Étienne LiotardSwiss, 1702-1789112 artworks
Auger LucasFrench, 1685-17652 artworks
Gustav LundbergSwedish, 1695-17862 artworks
Franz Anton MaulbertschAustrian, 1724-17968 artworks
Philipe MercierGerman, 1689-176072 artworks
Martin van MeytensSwedish, 1695-17707 artworks
Charles-Joseph NatoireFrench, 1700-1777245 artworks
Jean-Marc NattierFrench, 1685-176697 artworks
Jean-Baptiste PaterFrench, 1695-173642 artworks
Giovanni Antonio PellegriniItalian, 1675-174119 artworks
Jean-Baptiste PerronneauFrench, 1715-178330 artworks
Antoine PesneFrench, 1683-175728 artworks
Giovanni Battista PiazzettaItalian, 1683-175453 artworks
Jean-Baptiste Marie PierreFrench, 1714-178921 artworks
Pierre-Antoine QuillardFrench, 1700-17337 artworks
Jean RancFrench, 1674-17354 artworks
Jean RaouxFrench, 1677-173447 artworks
Alexander RoslinSwedish, 1718-179315 artworks
Pietro Antonio RotariItalian, 1707-176224 artworks
Jean-Frédéric SchallFrench, 1752-182569 artworks
Pierre SubleyrasFrench, 1699-174918 artworks
Guillaume Thomas TaravalFrench, 1701-175025 artworks
Hugues TaravalFrench, 1729-178558 artworks
Jean Thierry the YoungerFrench, 1669-17392 artworks
Giandomenico TiepoloItalian, 1727-18045 artworks
Giovanni Battista TiepoloItalian, 1696-1770122 artworks
Johann Heinrich Tischbein the ElderGerman, 1722-1789135 artworks
Louis TocquéFrench, 1696-17726 artworks
Gaspare TraversiItalian, 1722-17707 artworks
Pierre Charles TrémolièresFrench, 1703-17395 artworks
Louis de TrinquesseFrench, 1746-18007 artworks
Jean-François de TroyFrench, 1679-175245 artworks
French School 18th Century - UnknownFrench, 1700-18006 artworks
Carle Van LooFrench, 1705-1765308 artworks
Charles-Amédée-Philippe Van LooFrench, 1719-17957 artworks
François Van LooFrench, 1708-17328 artworks
Jean-Baptiste Van LooFrench, 1684-174578 artworks
Louis-Michel Van LooFrench, 1707-17716 artworks
Nicolas VleughelsFrench, 1688-173721 artworks
Guillaume VoiriotFrench, 1713-17992 artworks
Jean-Antoine WatteauFrench, 1684-1721102 artworks
Johann Georg Ziesenis der JüngereGerman, 1716-177725 artworks
Francesco ZuccarelliItalian, 1702-178823 artworks
Neoclassicism
Dates: 1760-1820

European art movement mostly dominated by France which aimed to reproduce the Antique style.

1. The forerunners: Mengs and Vien (1750-1780)

The discovery of Pompeii in 1748 and the excavations which followed launched a major breakthrough in the history of art as several frescoes were found nearly intact in former Roman houses. Greco-Roman painting had been so far idealized and for the first time painters could directly take their inspiration from genuine Antique paintings.

Two painters were in Rome at this moment, the German Mengs and the Frenchman Vien (as a Prix de Rome recipient). They both created a new style at odds with the prevalent Rococo by drawing straight lines and epurate shapes and colours, and which also recalled the works of Raphael and Poussin (hence the name of Neoclassicism, after the school of the latter). The classical style of the previous century had never totally vanished, thanks to Pompeo Batoni, who besides became the most wanted portraitist in Rome at that time. Mengs was rejoined by his friend Winckelmann, an archaeologist and art historian, who theorized the new style in his History of Ancient Art, written in 1764.

However, the shift with Rococo remained unfinished as Mengs continued to paint the same subjects as the other artists, with just a visual difference. Besides, Mengs later moved to Madrid to work for the Spanish Court where his style was as much appreciated as Tiepolo's. His early death in 1779 also prevented him from going further in copying the Antique.

Portrait of Charles Joseph Crowle by Batoni (left), Parnassus by Mengs (centre left) Marcus Aurelius Distributing Bread to the People by Vien (centre right), Mars and Venus by Lagrenée the Elder (right)

On the other hand, Vien returned to France and was admitted into the Academy where he taught his art. He was soon followed by Lagrenée the Elder, whose prolificacy helped to spread the new style through the Salon. Encouraged by the philosophers of the Enlightment, for whom Neoclassicism matched their conception of the rational civilisation, the style took off rapidly in 1770s. Among them, Diderot pushed for its recognition as he considered the Antique style to be morally better than the meaningless Rococo; even the new royal couple, Louis XVI and Marie-Antoinette patronized Neoclassicism. Therefore, a second generation of painters emerged during the decade, with artists such as Suvée, Berthélemy, Vincent, Lagrenée the Younger, Peyron, Regnault, and David - the most famous of them.

 

2. David and the Revolution (1780-1800)

David had greater ambitions for Neoclassicism than the mere graphical change with rococo hitherto proposed. He wanted to add a moral value to arts in order to inspire virtuous behaviour and devotion to the public good, with the obvious purpose of denouncing the general corruption which ruled the final years of the Ancien Régime. His works exhibited in the Paris Salons in the 1780s gained so much success that he forced all the other painters to either follow him, or be left forgotten; as a result, late Rococo and Fragonard were immediately swept away.

The most striking of his works was The Oath of the Horatii (left), displayed in 1785, which can be considered as the Neoclassical manifesto. The composition was organised in a symmetric frieze, with all the characters on the same level taking static poses, and a chiaroscuro highlighting the dramatic effect of the Horatii brothers' sacrifice - a typical subject of the movement. Indeed, David and his followers abandoned Christian subjects to devote almost exclusively to Greco-Roman mythology and history, whose events inspired the actors of the French Revolution which started in 1789.

The revolutionaries considered the Roman Republic as a golden age which they tried to recreate, notably by getting rid of all the royal institutions. In the case of the arts, they suppressed the Academy of Painting and Sculpture at the request of David, who had been elected MP of the Republic in 1792. He also organised republican national ceremonies and much of the propaganda for the new régime - like many of his fellow artists; as France was at war, both domestically and against Europe, they focused on classical stories of sacrifice for the public safety. Arts and politics had never been so bound together.

 

The Death of Marat by David (left), Marius at Minturnae by Drouais (centre), The Genius of France between Liberty and Death by Regnault (right).

 

David's workshop was the major art centre of the Western world, being filled of students from Europe and America. During the 1780s, he taught nearly all the painters of the third neoclassical generation, such as Gérard, Girodet, Meynier, Drouais, Guérin and Fabre, and including many women (for example, Benoist, Lemoine, or Ducreux), who followed the earlier examples of Vigée-Lebrun and Angelica Kauffman. Female artists mostly produced portraits and followed the hype of representing the sitter in Antique dress and interior, with many full-length portraits.

Portrait of Lavoisier and his Wife by David (left), Portrait of a Negress by Marie-Guillemine Benoist (centre-left), Portrait of Madame Récamier by Gérard (centre-right), Self-Portrait with Vigée-Lebrun by Marie-Victoire Lemoine (right).

 

However, during the final years of the century, David faced a rebellion in his workshop which was led by a radical group called the Barbus (the "Bearded Ones"), whose members wanted to go further in reproducing the Antique - especially the Greek pottery style. Quays and his friends (Broc, Duqueylard, Franque...) even criticized their master for having stopped halfway in this quest. Fed up by their critics, David finally expelled them from his workshop and therefore condemned their careers. Thus, only very few works from this group are known (Quays did not leave any); from these surviving paintings, we can see that they used unmelted colours with strong contrast, and characters in unusual positions.

The Death of Hyacinth by Broc (left), Ossian Reciting his Songs by Duqueylard (right)

 

3. The Empire Style (1800-1820)

After the failure of the Barbus group, the Neoclassic style moved backwards and softened its severity, matching the historical background. At the end of 1799, Napoléon took power and de facto ended the Revolution. By now, the idealisation of the Roman Republic and its political liberty became irrelevant, and could even face the pernickety censorship of the new régime.

Napoleon nevertheless appreciated the style as he considered himself a new Roman Emperor. He notably refounded a national art academy, called the Académie des Beaux Arts, in order to put the arts at his service. He therefore commissioned many large canvases celebrating his accomplishments - principally his victories - to David and especially Gros, the specialist of the genre. However, his influence in the arts was more visible in architecture (with so many monuments built according to the Antique style) and furniture thanks to the national manufacture of the Gobelins.

 

The Coronation of Napoleon by David (left), Napoleon at Eylau by Gros (right).

 

Meanwhile, artists still continued to paint mythological scenes, but in a much more charming way than before, with many love subjects. The introduction of warm Venetian colours, which they discovered after the conquest of Italy by France, allowed such a change as it eased the coldness of the previous stage. Girodet, Prud'hon, Guérin and also David in his later years, led this trend which lasted until the end of the 1810s.

Mars Disarmed by Venus and the Graces by David (left), Apollo (centre left) and Dance of the Graces Directed by Apollo (centre) by Girodet, Aurora and Cephalus by Guérin (right).

 

Eventually, Neoclassicism, which was closely associated with Napoleon, faded after his defeat at Waterloo (1815) and was replaced by Romanticism throughout Europe. Moreover, after the restoration of the Bourbons, David went into exile in Belgium for having voted for the death of Louis XVI and he could not exercise his influence in Paris any longer. His student Ingres nevertheless pursued nearly alone the neoclassical style in France until the Second Empire and made the link with the Academic style.

 Artists
Nicolai Abraham AbildgaardDanish, 1743-180961 artworks
Friedrich von AmerlingAustrian, 1803-188794 artworks
José Aparicio IngladaSpanish, 1770-18389 artworks
James BarryIrish, 1741-180619 artworks
Pompeo BatoniItalian, 1708-1787416 artworks
Jacques-Antoine BeaufortFrench, 1721-17849 artworks
Marie-Guillemine BenoistFrench, 1768-18268 artworks
Pietro BenvenutiItalian, 1769-18447 artworks
Jean-Simon BerthélemyFrench, 1743-181128 artworks
Jean BrocFrench, 1771-18502 artworks
Antoine-Francois CalletFrench, 1741-182311 artworks
Marie-Gabrielle CapetFrench, 1761-18184 artworks
Gianbettino CignaroliItalian, 1706-177020 artworks
Laurent DabosFrench, 1761-18352 artworks
Jacques-Louis DavidFrench, 1748-1825159 artworks
Jean-Germain DrouaisFrench, 1763-17886 artworks
Antoine DubostFrench, 1769-18252 artworks
Rose-Adelaide DucreuxFrench, 1761-18024 artworks
Paul DuqueylardFrench, 1771-18452 artworks
François-Xavier FabreFrench, 1766-183751 artworks
Jean-Pierre FranqueFrench, 1774-18601 artwork
Étienne-Barthélémy GarnierFrench, 1759-18496 artworks
Louis GauffierFrench, 1762-180120 artworks
François GérardFrench, 1770-183754 artworks
Anne-Louis Girodet de Roussy-TriosonFrench, 1767-1824139 artworks
Antoine-Jean GrosFrench, 1771-183553 artworks
Pierre-Narcisse GuerinFrench, 1774-183310 artworks
Alexandre Charles GuillemotFrench, 1786-18312 artworks
Guillaume Guillon-LethiereFrench, 1760-183212 artworks
Jean-Auguste-Dominique IngresFrench, 1780-1867110 artworks
Angelica KauffmannSwiss, 1741-1807175 artworks
Jean-Jacques LagrenéeFrench, 1739-182129 artworks
Louis Jean François LagrenéeFrench, 1724-180593 artworks
Robert LefevreFrench, 1755-183059 artworks
Marie-Victoire LemoineFrench, 1754-182018 artworks
Anton Raphael MengsGerman, 1728-177954 artworks
Léonor MériméeFrench, 1757-18361 artwork
Charles MeynierFrench, 1768-183211 artworks
Pierre PeyronFrench, 1744-18147 artworks
Francois-Edouard PicotFrench, 1786-18683 artworks
Pierre-Paul Prud'honFrench, 1758-182316 artworks
Pierre-Maurice QuaysFrench, 1779-1803
Claude RameyFrench, 1754-1838
Jean-Baptiste RegnaultFrench, 1754-182924 artworks
Louis Antoine Léon RiesenerFrench, 1808-18783 artworks
Adèle RomanyFrench, 1769-18462 artworks
Carl RottmannGerman, 1797-18501 artwork
Johann Baptist SeeleGerman, 1774-18141 artwork
Joseph Karl StielerGerman, 1781-185865 artworks
Joseph-Benoit SuvéeBelgian, 1743-180718 artworks
Louis-Gustave TaravalFrench, 1739-179418 artworks
Johann Friedrich August TischbeinGerman, 1750-18123 artworks
François Topino-LebrunFrench, 1764-18014 artworks
French School 18th Century - UnknownFrench, 1700-18006 artworks
Jacques-Antoine VallinFrench, 1760-183136 artworks
John VanderlynAmerican, 1775-18529 artworks
Joseph Marie VienFrench, 1716-180946 artworks
Francois-Andre VincentFrench, 1746-181614 artworks
Benjamin WestAmerican, 1738-1820137 artworks
Johann ZoffanyGerman, 1733-1810172 artworks
Antonio ZucchiItalian, 1726-179641 artworks
Classicism
Dates: 1610-1700

Italian and French movement which aimed to counter the eccentricity of Baroque by painting ordered and refined scenes.

1. The Bolognese School

Madonna

.


The Guardian Angel by Franceschini


2. Poussin and the "Atticism"



Allegory of Music by La Hyre, The Muses Melpomene, Erato and Polyhymnia by Le Sueur.


3. The French Academy of Painting and Sculpture


 Artists
Francesco AlbaniItalian, 1578-1660160 artworks
Lubin BauginFrench, 1612-166311 artworks
Bon BoullogneFrench, 1649-171718 artworks
Louis de Boullogne the YoungerFrench, 1654-173346 artworks
Sébastien BourdonFrench, 1616-167165 artworks
Philippe de ChampaigneFrench, 1602-167431 artworks
Carlo CignaniItalian, 1628-17197 artworks
Claude Lorrain (Gellée)French, 1600-1682149 artworks
Nicolas ColombelFrench, 1644-171720 artworks
Antoine Coypel IIFrench, 1661-172282 artworks
Noël Coypel IFrench, 1628-170755 artworks
Antoine CoysevoxFrench, 1640-172029 artworks
DomenichinoItalian, 1581-164127 artworks
Michel DorignyFrench, 1617-16634 artworks
Charles-Alphonse DufresnoyFrench, 1611-166818 artworks
Gaspard DughetFrench, 1615-167586 artworks
Marcantonio FranceschiniItalian, 1648-1729115 artworks
Benedetto Gennari the YoungerItalian, 1633-171517 artworks
François GirardonFrench, 1628-171517 artworks
René-Antoine HouasseFrench, 1645-171040 artworks
Laurent de La HyreFrench, 1606-165689 artworks
Charles Le BrunFrench, 1619-1690161 artworks
Pierre Ledart IIIFrench, 1628-16981 artwork
Jean LemaireFrench, 1597-165924 artworks
Eustache Le SueurFrench, 1617-1655115 artworks
Carlo MarattaItalian, 1625-171343 artworks
Henri MauperchéFrench, 1602-168616 artworks
Nicolas MignardFrench, 1606-16683 artworks
Pierre MignardFrench, 1612-169572 artworks
Marc NattierFrench, 1642-17051 artwork
Pierre Patel the ElderFrench, 1605-16764 artworks
Nicolas PoussinFrench, 1594-1665183 artworks
Guido ReniItalian, 1575-1642115 artworks
Hyacinthe RigaudFrench, 1659-174389 artworks
Andrea SacchiItalian, 1599-16612 artworks
Giovanni Salvi da SassoferratoItalian, 1609-168559 artworks
Romanticism
Dates: 1790-1850

========UNDER CONSTRUCTION:=======

Western artistic movement flourishing during the first half of the 19th century, in painting, music, literature, and poetry.

1. Nationalism

Romanticism was born in Britain and Germany, after its conquest by French armies and the humiliation of the Treaties of Tilsit in 1807, which dismembered Prussia. As a reaction against their occupation, the Germans rejected all the French thought issued from the Enlightenments, conveying the ideas of rationalism, irreligion, and scientific progress, and instead idealised the glorious times of Germany in the Middle Ages - a period despised by the French as archaic.

The Nazarenes: Madonna with Child by Carolsfeld (left), The Introduction of the Arts in Germany through Religion by Veit (centre-left), The Three Mary at the Tomb by Cornelius (centre right), Holy Dorothea by Ittenbach (right)

German nationalism therefore relied on Gothic imagery and a strong Christian faith, notably by a group called the Nazarenes (with Veit, Carolsfeld, Ittenbach, von Cornelius, etc.) who were active in Rome during the first half of the century. They played an important role in the Christian revival in Europe by painting Biblical scenes in an archaic style, thus rejecting the Greco-Roman mythology glorified in France at the same time with Neoclassicism. After the fall of Napoleon, all the West embraced Romanticism.

Visually, Romantic painters also fought against the classical rules, and many styles cohabited. The movement is therefore impossible to describe; its only consistency can be found in the themes chosen. Continuing the interest of the Nazarenes in Gothic times, romantics of all countries looked back at their national history to find inspiration. As Eric Hobsbawm later said, each people "invented" its national traditions and history; scholars wrote the first histories of their nation, from which poets drew lyrical pieces and painters illustrated the most famous events and anecdotes. In France, this national history paintings was the hallmark of the Troubadours group (lead by Fragonard the Younger and Fleury-Richard), whose name referred to their focus on the Middle Ages.

The French Troubadours: Valentine of Milan Mourning her Husband by Fleury-Richard (left), Henri II and Diane de Poitiers in the Studio of Jean Goujon by Fragonard (centre), The Battle of Poitiers, 732, by Steuben.

The Romantics also tried to personify their abstract nation into allegories with distinctive attributes - like ancient gods before. The most famous of these, The Liberty Guiding the People made by Delacroix after the Revolution of 1830, became an iconic work and has embodied France since. In 1848, the first government of the French Second Republic even set a national contest to find the best allegoric representation of the Republic.

National allegories: The Liberty Guiding the People by Delacroix (left), Germania and Italia by Overbeck (centre), Germania by Veit (right)

Current historical events also received attention from the Romantics, who made frequent propaganda artworks in favour of nationalist movements at home and abroad. Goya opened the way with his world-famous diptych on the Spanish insurrection of the 2 and 3 May 1808 against Napoleon, showing both the uprising and its bloody repression. During the 1820s, Romantic produced several propaganda pieces depicting the Greek Independence war, in order to push for an intervention against the Ottoman Empire in the name of Christian solidarity.

National uprisings: The 2nd and 3rd May 1808 by Goya (left), Scene of the Belgian Revolution of 1830 by Wappers (centre right), Greece on the Ruins of Missolonghi by Delacroix (right)

The Springtime of the Peoples in 1848 was at the same time the climax of Romanticism and its end. At first, all the national uprisings appeared as the accomplishment of the national constructions of the previous decades, but their crushing by reactionary forces put an end to the dream. After this failure, official art moved towards a more conservative movement called Academism, except in the UK, where the Preraphaelites retained most of the romantic ideal.

2. Melancholy

Nevertheless, the tragic end of the National uprisings precisely matched the discourse of Romanticism, which was a very pessimistic movement. The Philosophers of the Enlightenments believed in an unstoppable progress improving mankind since the obscurity of the Middle Ages. Seen as wild and primitive, Nature had to be tamed by a rational civilisation, freed from superstition, and expanding through new industrial technologies. Illustrating this optimistic belief, neoclassical scenes frequently took place in geometrical marble palaces of Ancient Rome - at the time considered as the ideal civilisation. As a result, landscape painting nearly disappeared of continental Europe in the final decades of the 18th.

Romanticism had on the contrary an extremely important landscape output. Nature was indeed celebrated because the Romantics believed that Man had been perverted by civilisation, and idealised instead the pastoral times (the theory of the "Noble savage"). This idea was perfectly summarised by the American Thomas Cole: exalted by his discovery of untouched nature in the American West, he made a famous series showing the rise and fall of a classical civilisation. The third picture of the Course of Empire represents the ideal city of the Neoclassicists, but Cole painted what was before (the peaceful savage nature), and what happened after - war destroying civilisation. In the last painting, Nature is shown taking back her rights on the remnants of mankind.

Thomas Cole's Course of Empire: The Savage State, the Pastoral State, Consummation, Destruction, Desolation.

This struggle between nature and civilisation was a recurrent theme in Cole's oeuvre, who painted many landscapes with ancient ruins to show how ephemera human societies were. The Romantics in general had a fascination for ruins, but contrary to the vedutisti of the previous century - who had already made many views of wrecked buildings -, they added either dark clouds in a threatening sky, or a mighty Sun, for their dramatic effect (both could also represent the superiority of God over Man's creations).

Ancient ruins: The Decline of the Carthaginian Empire by Turner (left), Gothic Ruins by Cole (centre), Hadleigh Castle by Constable (right)

Going farther then just painting ruins of ancient civilisations, some romantics tried to depict the precise moment of their destruction, often by God himself, whose wrath against men is shown smashing classical palaces, with tiny and hopeless characters in the foreground. These very impressive apocalyptic landscapes were a hallmark of several British painters led by John Martin and followed by Danby, Colman, and also Turner.

Apocalypse (from left to right): The End of the World by Martin, The Edge of Doom by Colman, The Evening of the Deluge by Turner, The Deluge by Danby.

Destruction in general was a privileged theme of the period and several scenes of fires, shipwrecks, explosions, etc. became the most iconic works of Romanticism.

Destruction: The Burning of the Houses of Parliament by Turner (left), The Last Day of Pompeii by Brulloff.

More serene nature

Man and Woman Contemplating the Moon

Man in awe before Nature: Wanderer above a Sea of Fog, and Man and Woman Contemplating the Moon by Friedrich, Salisbury Cathedral from the Bishop's Ground by Constable

After Romanticism, landscape art lost its supernatural elements to concentrate solely on nature, hence the name of Realism, which was represented by the Barbizon School in France (notably inspired by Constable) and the Hudson River School in the USA.

3. Passions

Poetry

Impossible love

Tragedy and heroism

 

Madness and hubris

 Artists
Leonardo Alenza y NietoSpanish, 1807-18455 artworks
Washington AllstonAmerican, 1779-184318 artworks
Albert AnkerSwiss, 1831-1910213 artworks
Peder BalkeNorwegian, 1804-188754 artworks
William BlakeEnglish, 1757-1827120 artworks
Merry-Joseph BlondelFrench, 1781-185318 artworks
Antoine-Felix Boisselier the YoungerFrench, 1790-18574 artworks
Richard Parkes BoningtonEnglish, 1801-1828110 artworks
Karl Pavlovich BrulloffRussian, 1799-1852184 artworks
Léopold BurtheFrench, 1823-18602 artworks
Ágost Elek CanziHungarian, 1808-18665 artworks
Carl Gustav CarusGerman, 1789-186989 artworks
Franz Ludwig CatelGerman, 1778-185617 artworks
Nicolas-Toussaint CharletFrench, 1792-18458 artworks
Théodore ChassériauFrench, 1819-185663 artworks
Léon CognietFrench, 1794-188012 artworks
Thomas ColeEnglish, 1801-1848136 artworks
Samuel Colman1780-184520 artworks
John ConstableEnglish, 1776-1837252 artworks
Peter von CorneliusGerman, 1783-18678 artworks
John Sell CotmanEnglish, 1782-184269 artworks
J.C.C. DahlNorwegian, 1788-185797 artworks
Francis DanbyIrish, 1793-1861126 artworks
Jacques-Louis DavidFrench, 1748-1825159 artworks
Eugène DelacroixFrench, 1798-1863188 artworks
William Edward Dighton1822-18538 artworks
Louise-Adéone DröllingFrench, 1797-18314 artworks
William DyceScottish, 1806-186472 artworks
Marie EllenriederGerman, 1791-186334 artworks
Alexandre-Evariste FragonardFrench, 1780-185014 artworks
Rudolf FrentzRussian, 1831-19189 artworks
Caspar David FriedrichGerman, 1774-184090 artworks
Joseph von FührichCzech, 1800-18764 artworks
Henry FuseliSwiss, 1741-1825108 artworks
Théodore GéricaultFrench, 1791-182493 artworks
Francisco Jose de Goya y LucientesSpanish, 1746-1828218 artworks
Francesco Paolo HayezItalian, 1791-188180 artworks
Theodor von Holst1810-18442 artworks
Franz IttenbachGerman, 1813-18799 artworks
Louis JanmotFrench, 1814-189224 artworks
Georg Friedrich KerstingGerman, 1785-184731 artworks
Orest KiprenskyRussian, 1778-183638 artworks
Christen KøbkeDanish, 1810-184897 artworks
Joseph KochAustrian, 1768-18396 artworks
Sir Thomas LawrenceEnglish, 1769-1830140 artworks
Carl Friedrich LessingGerman, 1808-188012 artworks
John MartinEnglish, 1789-185472 artworks
Johann Friedrich OverbeckGerman, 1789-186914 artworks
Ernest Fritz PetzholdtDanish, 1805-18387 artworks
Franz PforrGerman, 1788-18125 artworks
Simon QuaglioGerman, 1795-18782 artworks
Alfred RethelGerman, 1816-18597 artworks
Francois Fleury RichardFrench, 1777-18523 artworks
Ludwig RichterGerman, 1803-188449 artworks
August RiedelGerman, 1799-188311 artworks
Philipp Otto RungeGerman, 1777-18105 artworks
Friedrich Wilhelm SchadowGerman, 1788-186225 artworks
Ary SchefferFrench, 1795-185829 artworks
Julius Schnorr von CarolsfeldGerman, 1794-187223 artworks
Ludwig Schnorr von CarolsfeldGerman, 1788-18532 artworks
Moritz von SchwindAustrian, 1804-18713 artworks
Karl Ferdinand SohnGerman, 1805-18675 artworks
Carl SpitzwegGerman, 1808-188537 artworks
Baron Charles SteubenFrench, 1788-18564 artworks
Hermann Anton StilkeGerman, 1803-18603 artworks
Adolph TidemandNorwegian, 1814-18766 artworks
Joseph Mallord William TurnerEnglish, 1775-18511187 artworks
Philipp VeitGerman, 1793-18779 artworks
Horace VernetFrench, 1789-186377 artworks
Baron Egide Charles Gustave WappersBelgian, 1803-18742 artworks
Antoine WiertzBelgian, 1806-18655 artworks